Menu Close Menu

Menu

TITANIUM DIOXIDE

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate) and Occupational hazards (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
lipstick2726 products
foundation2663 products
eye shadow1577 products
concealer1166 products
lip gloss904 products
bronzer/highlighter835 products
eye liner630 products
blush612 products
brow liner579 products
lip balm442 products
nail polish432 products
facial powder358 products
lip liner334 products
bar soap301 products
toothpaste270 products
mask237 products
mascara215 products
makeup primer199 products
facial moisturizer/treatment140 products
shampoo135 products
hair color and bleaching116 products
moisturizer107 products
exfoliant/scrub105 products
body wash/cleanser97 products
serums & essences95 products
daily use with SPF94 products
facial cleanser86 products
around-eye cream78 products
BB cream78 products
glitter69 products
setting powder/spray64 products
lip plumper62 products
CC cream62 products
62 products
shaving cream38 products
bath oil/salts/soak37 products
body firming lotion36 products
hair styling aide33 products
conditioner30 products
tooth whitening22 products
anti-aging22 products
hand cream21 products
lip balm with SPF21 products
recreational sunscreen19 products
styling gel/lotion18 products
pore strips17 products
other eye makeup16 products
hair treatment/serum15 products
sunless tanning12 products
body oil11 products
baby lotion9 products
baby soap8 products
nail treatment7 products
toners/astringents7 products
shaving cream (men's)6 products
fragrance for women6 products
liquid hand soap6 products
antiperspirant/deodorant6 products
bubble bath6 products
skin fading/lightener5 products
body art5 products
baby shampoo5 products
depilatory4 products
oil controller4 products
makeup remover4 products
hand sanitizer4 products
body spray4 products
mouthwash3 products
baby toothpaste3 products
hair spray2 products
baby oil2 products
after sun product2 products
detangler2 products
hair relaxer2 products
styling mousse/foam2 products
nail glue2 products
foot cleansing2 products
baby bubble bath2 products
eye makeup remover1 products
cuticle treatment1 products
foot moisturizer1 products
muscle/joint soreness1 products
tanning oil1 products
eyelash glue1 products
baby sunscreen1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
fragrance for men1 products
beard care1 products

Occupational hazards

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Unbound particles of respirable size listed as a Carcinogen: California Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Decreased skin absorption

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
The amounts of titanium found in the tape strips and skin preparations were in the order of the analytical determination limit. No Ti was found in the receptor fluid at any sampling time.Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.

Data gaps

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
21244 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer