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TITANIUM DIOXIDE

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate) and Occupational hazards (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick1432 products
foundation1406 products
eye shadow642 products
concealer536 products
bronzer/highlighter424 products
lip gloss350 products
eye liner310 products
blush284 products
brow liner255 products
facial powder186 products
lip liner180 products
nail polish166 products
lip balm144 products
mask94 products
mascara85 products
bar soap83 products
toothpaste79 products
makeup primer67 products
hair color and bleaching50 products
serums & essences45 products
facial moisturizer/treatment44 products
moisturizer42 products
shampoo36 products
exfoliant/scrub35 products
body wash/cleanser34 products
around-eye cream34 products
facial cleanser26 products
glitter22 products
lip plumper17 products
BB cream17 products
CC cream16 products
shaving cream12 products
hair styling aide10 products
anti-aging7 products
body firming lotion7 products
pore strips6 products
tooth whitening6 products
nail treatment5 products
antiperspirant/deodorant5 products
styling gel/lotion5 products
baby lotion5 products
bath oil/salts/soak4 products
sunless tanning4 products
other eye makeup4 products
fragrance for women4 products
shaving cream (men's)3 products
makeup with SPF3 products
moisturizer with SPF3 products
baby shampoo3 products
baby soap3 products
conditioner3 products
oil controller3 products
liquid hand soap2 products
toners/astringents2 products
body oil2 products
hand cream2 products
baby toothpaste2 products
depilatory1 products
detangler1 products
baby oil1 products
baby sunscreen1 products
fragrance for men1 products
eyelash glue1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
body spray1 products
beach & sport sunscreen1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)1 products
bubble bath1 products
hair relaxer1 products
baby bubble bath1 products

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Unbound particles of respirable size listed as a Carcinogen: California Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Decreased skin absorption

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Concern Reference
The amounts of titanium found in the tape strips and skin preparations were in the order of the analytical determination limit. No Ti was found in the receptor fluid at any sampling time.Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
21244 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.

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