- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
- Products with this ingredient are allowed for use in EWG VERIFIED but must meet use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.
IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem
Other ConcernsNon-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate) and Occupational hazards (high)
Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation
Titanium dioxide is an inorganic compound used in a range of body care products such as sunscreens and makeup. It appears to have low skin penetration but inhalation is a concern.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|eye shadow||2130 products|
|lip gloss||1289 products|
|eye liner||905 products|
|brow liner||735 products|
|nail polish||581 products|
|lip balm||500 products|
|lip liner||453 products|
|bar soap||359 products|
|daily use with SPF||292 products|
|facial powder||264 products|
|makeup primer||216 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||201 products|
|CC cream||164 products|
|setting powder/spray||156 products|
|around-eye cream||138 products|
|BB cream||134 products|
|hair color and bleaching||127 products|
|lip plumper||104 products|
|serums & essences||93 products|
|body wash/cleanser||82 products|
|facial cleanser||81 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||57 products|
|hair styling aide||49 products|
|lip balm with SPF||41 products|
|shaving cream||40 products|
|recreational sunscreen||37 products|
|body oil||34 products|
|hand cream||30 products|
|hair treatment/serum||25 products|
|tooth whitening||20 products|
|styling gel/lotion||20 products|
|body firming lotion||20 products|
|sunless tanning||18 products|
|pore strips||17 products|
|nail treatment||14 products|
|baby lotion||14 products|
|hair removal waxes||10 products|
|skin fading/lightener||10 products|
|body powder||9 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||8 products|
|bubble bath||8 products|
|liquid hand soap||7 products|
|baby soap||7 products|
|makeup remover||6 products|
|other eye makeup||6 products|
|nail glue||6 products|
|hand sanitizer||5 products|
|body spray||5 products|
|hair spray||3 products|
|baby toothpaste||3 products|
|eyelash glue||3 products|
|baby sunscreen||3 products|
|foot moisturizer||2 products|
|styling mousse/foam||2 products|
|damaged skin treatment||2 products|
|baby shampoo||2 products|
|beard care||2 products|
|fragrance for women||1 products|
|oil controller||1 products|
|after sun product||1 products|
|muscle/joint soreness||1 products|
|body art||1 products|
|foot cleansing||1 products|
|fragrance for men||1 products|
|baby bubble bath||1 products|
|beard cleanser||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Does not cause enhanced penetration||Open scientific literature|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Possible human carcinogen||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Decreased skin absorption
|No absorption into intact skin||Open scientific literature|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|21244 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.