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Data: Fair

Iron Oxides

IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem

SEARCH PRODUCTS

Other Concerns

Enhanced skin absorption, Persistence and bioaccumulation (high), and Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low)

SYNONYMS

BLACK IRON OXIDE, BLACK OXIDE OF IRON, BROWN IRON OXIDE, C.I. PIGMENT BROWN 7, CI 77489, CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499, FERRIC OXIDE, FERROSOFERRIC OXIDE, FERROUS-FERRIC OXIDE, HYDRATED FERRIC OXIDE, IRON BLACK OXIDE, IRON HYDROXIDE OXIDE, IRON OXIDE, IRON OXIDE (FEO), IRON OXIDE RED 10-34-PC-2045, IRON OXIDES, IRON YELLOW OXIDE, IRON(II) OXIDE, MAGNETITE, NATURAL IRON OXIDE, PIGMENT BLACK 11, PIGMENT BROWN 6, PIGMENT BROWN 7, PIGMENT RED 101, PIGMENT YELLOW 42, PIGMENT YELLOW 43, RED IRON OXIDE, SYNTHETIC IRON OXIDE, YELLOW IRON OXIDE, and YELLOW OXIDE OF IRON

Iron oxides are inorganic chemicals used as colorants.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • LOW
    Cancer
  • LOW
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reingredientive Toxicity
  • LOW
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

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foundation7015 products
lipstick6027 products
eye shadow3617 products
concealer3301 products
lip gloss2155 products
brow liner1973 products
blush1688 products
bronzer/highlighter1647 products
eye liner1637 products
lip liner1157 products
mascara868 products
facial powder850 products
lip balm836 products
nail polish725 products
daily use with SPF547 products
setting powder/spray416 products
CC cream328 products
BB cream314 products
makeup primer289 products
mask212 products
184 products
bar soap149 products
recreational sunscreen147 products
hair color and bleaching145 products
lip plumper143 products
facial moisturizer/treatment133 products
lip balm with SPF125 products
exfoliant/scrub99 products
around-eye cream95 products
glitter94 products
serums & essences76 products
body oil74 products
shampoo71 products
bath oil/salts/soak52 products
body wash/cleanser48 products
facial cleanser45 products
moisturizer43 products
anti-aging29 products
hair styling aide22 products
sunless tanning17 products
body powder17 products
conditioner15 products
eyelash glue9 products
hair treatment/serum9 products
skin fading/lightener8 products
styling gel/lotion7 products
liquid hand soap6 products
nail treatment6 products
nail glue6 products
pore strips6 products
bubble bath6 products
oil controller5 products
body firming lotion5 products
toners/astringents5 products
makeup remover5 products
body spray5 products
body art5 products
shaving cream (men's)4 products
depilatory3 products
other eye makeup3 products
hand sanitizer3 products
muscle/joint soreness3 products
baby sunscreen3 products
hair-loss treatment2 products
foot cleansing2 products
styling mousse/foam2 products
fragrance for men2 products
toothpaste1 products
hand cream1 products
hair spray1 products
shaving cream1 products
tanning oil1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityScorecard.org Toxicity Information
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data gaps

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CONCERN REFERENCE
9326 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Informational

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status

Cancer

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

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