Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|eye shadow||751 products|
|lip gloss||259 products|
|moisturizer with SPF||205 products|
|beach & sport sunscreen||189 products|
|facial powder||186 products|
|nail polish||164 products|
|eye liner||154 products|
|brow liner||139 products|
|lip liner||105 products|
|makeup primer||78 products|
|serums & essences||58 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||51 products|
|lip balm||51 products|
|BB cream||35 products|
|hair color and bleaching||21 products|
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||18 products|
|lip balm with SPF||18 products|
|other eye makeup||15 products|
|around-eye cream||15 products|
|facial cleanser||12 products|
|CC cream||12 products|
|lip plumper||12 products|
|baby sunscreen||11 products|
|pore strips||8 products|
|nail treatment||6 products|
|hair styling aide||6 products|
|body wash/cleanser||6 products|
|hair treatment/serum||4 products|
|tooth whitening||4 products|
|makeup with SPF||4 products|
|oil controller||3 products|
|sunless tanning||3 products|
|baby lotion||2 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||2 products|
|after sun product||2 products|
|styling gel/lotion||2 products|
|fragrance for men||2 products|
|shaving cream||2 products|
|fragrance for women||2 products|
|body oil||2 products|
|hair relaxer||1 products|
|damaged skin treatment||1 products|
|diaper cream||1 products|
|after shave||1 products|
|eyelash glue||1 products|
|liquid hand soap||1 products|
|beard oil||1 products|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity||Dossing, M and P. Skinhoj. Occupational Liver Injury. Present State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 56:1-21. 1985. (Table 2: Chemically induced liver injury: morphologic features and examples of confirmed and suspected causative agents).|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|65522 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 68;1997|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- Dossing, M and P. Skinhoj. Occupational Liver Injury. Present State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 56:1-21. 1985. (Table 2: Chemically induced liver injury: morphologic features and examples of confirmed and suspected causative agents).
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 68;1997
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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