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RETINYL PROPIONATE

Score:

Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW_MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is HIGH

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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serums & essences1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Absorbs into the skinBoehnlein J, Sakr A, Lichtin JL, Bronaugh RL 1994. Characterization of esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase activity in skin. Metabolism of retinyl palmitate to retinol (vitamin A) during percutaneous absorption. Pharm Res 11(8): 1155-9.

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Cherng SH, Xia Q, Blankenship LR, Freeman JP, Wamer WG, Howard PC, et al 2005. Photodecomposition of retinyl palmitate in ethanol by UVA light-formation of photodecomposition products, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxides. Chem Res Toxicol 18(2): 129-38

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human reproductive toxicantFDA 1995. FDA Talk Paper: Vitamin A and Birth Defects. US Food and Drug Administration
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityYourick JJ, Jung CT, Bronaugh RL 2008. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 231(1): 117-21
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at low dosesHathcock JN, Hattan DG, Jenkens MY, McDonald JT, Sundaresan PR, Wilkening VL 1990. Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 183–202.

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsGerman BfR 2014. Vitamin A: Intake via cosmetic products should be restricted. http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/349/vitamin-a-intake-via-cosmetic-products-should-be-restricted.pdf
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients

Cancer

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at very low dosesNational Toxicology Program (NTP) 2012. Photocarcinogenesis Studies of Retinoic Acid and Retinyl Palmitate [CAS Nos. 302-79-4 (All-trans-retinoic acid) and 79-81-2 (All-trans-retinyl palmitate)] in SKH-1 Mice (simulated solar light and topical application study). Report TR-568.
Cancer - limited evidenceNTP 2000. All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate [CASRN 79-81-2]. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/Chem_Background/ExSumPdf/RetinylPalmitate.pdf
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsMei N, Xia Q, Chen L, Moore MM, Fu PP, Chen T 2005. Photomutagenicity of retinyl palmitate by ultraviolet a irradiation in mouse lymphoma cells. Toxicol Sci 88(1): 142-9.
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsYan J, Xia Q, Cherng SH, Wamer WG, Howard PC, Yu H, et al 2005. Photo-induced DNA damage and photocytotoxicity of retinyl palmitate and its photodecomposition products. Toxicol Ind Health 21(7-8): 167-75

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of skin toxicityDuell EA, Kang S, Voorhees JJ 1997. Unoccluded retinol penetrates human skin in vivo more effectively than unoccluded retinyl palmitate or retinoic acid. J Invest Dermatol 109(3): 301-5.
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
10 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Uncertain environmental toxin and uncertain persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Boehnlein J, Sakr A, Lichtin JL, Bronaugh RL 1994. Characterization of esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase activity in skin. Metabolism of retinyl palmitate to retinol (vitamin A) during percutaneous absorption. Pharm Res 11(8): 1155-9.
  • Cherng SH, Xia Q, Blankenship LR, Freeman JP, Wamer WG, Howard PC, et al 2005. Photodecomposition of retinyl palmitate in ethanol by UVA light-formation of photodecomposition products, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxides. Chem Res Toxicol 18(2): 129-38
  • FDA 1995. FDA Talk Paper: Vitamin A and Birth Defects. US Food and Drug Administration
  • Yourick JJ, Jung CT, Bronaugh RL 2008. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 231(1): 117-21
  • Hathcock JN, Hattan DG, Jenkens MY, McDonald JT, Sundaresan PR, Wilkening VL 1990. Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 183–202.
  • German BfR 2014. Vitamin A: Intake via cosmetic products should be restricted. http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/349/vitamin-a-intake-via-cosmetic-products-should-be-restricted.pdf
  • Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
  • National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2012. Photocarcinogenesis Studies of Retinoic Acid and Retinyl Palmitate [CAS Nos. 302-79-4 (All-trans-retinoic acid) and 79-81-2 (All-trans-retinyl palmitate)] in SKH-1 Mice (simulated solar light and topical application study). Report TR-568.
  • NTP 2000. All-Trans-Retinyl Palmitate [CASRN 79-81-2]. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/Chem_Background/ExSumPdf/RetinylPalmitate.pdf
  • Mei N, Xia Q, Chen L, Moore MM, Fu PP, Chen T 2005. Photomutagenicity of retinyl palmitate by ultraviolet a irradiation in mouse lymphoma cells. Toxicol Sci 88(1): 142-9.
  • Yan J, Xia Q, Cherng SH, Wamer WG, Howard PC, Yu H, et al 2005. Photo-induced DNA damage and photocytotoxicity of retinyl palmitate and its photodecomposition products. Toxicol Ind Health 21(7-8): 167-75
  • Duell EA, Kang S, Voorhees JJ 1997. Unoccluded retinol penetrates human skin in vivo more effectively than unoccluded retinyl palmitate or retinoic acid. J Invest Dermatol 109(3): 301-5.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

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