Other ConcernsUse restrictions (moderate), Endocrine disruption (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low), Ecotoxicology (low), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high), Occupational hazards (high), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (moderate)
Unacceptable: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient
According to website information provided by Clariant, the manufacturer of phenonip, this ingredient is a mix of preservatives phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben, butylparaben, propylparaben, and isobutylparaben. Parabens mimic estrogen, are potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptors, and were found in the breast cancer tumors of 19 of 20 women studied (Darbre 2004). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) tested urine from a group of 2,548 Americans over the age of 6 and found parabens in over 99% of samples (Calafat 2010). Propylparaben and butylparaben have been classified as potential human endocrine system disruptors by the European Commission on Endocrine Disruption (EU 2007).
See how this product scores for common concerns.
MODERATEAllergies & Immunotoxicity
MODERATEDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as irritant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in cosmetics (concentration limit)||Japan's Standards for Cosmetics|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
Biochemical or cellular level changes
|Interferes with gene expresion||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show any effects at very low doses||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show any effects at low doses||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of developmental toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as toxic or harmful||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|One or more studies show weak endocrine disruption||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at moderate doses||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at high doses||Open scientific literature|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Safety assessment was based on related chemical||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|3 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.