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PABA

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Multiple, additive exposure sources (low), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Absorbs into the skinWang LH, Huang WS, Tai HM 2007. Simultaneous determination of p-aminobenzoic acid and its metabolites in the urine of volunteers, treated with p-aminobenzoic acid sunscreen formulation. J Pharm Biomed Anal 43(4): 1430-1436.

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.{Allen, 1996}

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCosIng

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Human any toxicant or allergen - moderate evidenceMancel, E, M. Drouet, et al. (1999). "[Allergy to sunscreens]." Allerg Immunol (Paris) 31(6): 195-9.
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesMackie BS, Mackie LE The PABA story. Australas J Dermatol. 1999 Feb;40(1):51-3.

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Used in food or as an additive with limited or no toxicity information availableFDA Everything Added to Food
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 16, Suppl. 7 ;1987

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
5422 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Wang LH, Huang WS, Tai HM 2007. Simultaneous determination of p-aminobenzoic acid and its metabolites in the urine of volunteers, treated with p-aminobenzoic acid sunscreen formulation. J Pharm Biomed Anal 43(4): 1430-1436.
  • {Allen, 1996}
  • Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • Mancel, E, M. Drouet, et al. (1999). "[Allergy to sunscreens]." Allerg Immunol (Paris) 31(6): 195-9.
  • Mackie BS, Mackie LE The PABA story. Australas J Dermatol. 1999 Feb;40(1):51-3.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 16, Suppl. 7 ;1987
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

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