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OXYBENZONE

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Use restrictions (moderate), Endocrine disruption (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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beach & sport sunscreen250 products
moisturizer with SPF85 products
lip balm with SPF37 products
BB cream12 products
baby sunscreen10 products
moisturizer5 products
exfoliant/scrub2 products
foundation2 products
facial cleanser1 products
body wash/cleanser1 products
fragrance for women1 products
bath oil/salts/soak1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Penetration enhancerPont AR, Charron AR, Brand RM 2004. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 195(3): 348-354.
Absorbs into the skin{Gupta, 1999; Potard, 2000}

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Hanson KM, Gratton E, Bardeen CJ 2006. Sunscreen enhancement of UV-induced reactive oxygen species in the skin. Free Radic Biol Med 41(8): 1205-1212.
Does not produces excess reactive oxygen species or other harmful biochemical changes.{Allen, 1996}

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Possible human photoallergenic toxicant or allergenSCCP (2006) "Opinion on Benzophenone-3." European Commission - The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. SCCP/1069/06 Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/sccp_opinions_en.htm.
One or more human case studies show significant photoallergenic or allergenic effectsBryden AM, Moseley H, Ibbotson SH, Chowdhury MM, Beck MH, Bourke J, et al 2006. Photopatch testing of 1155 patients: results of the U.K. multicentre photopatch study group. Br J Dermatol 155(4): 737-747.
One or more human case studies show possible immune system or allergenic effects{Journe, 1999}
Limited evidence of immune system (sensitization) toxicity or allergiesCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review) 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Not likely to be a immune system toxicant or allergenic in humans{CTFA, 1979; FDA,1978; Leberco Labs, 1979; FDRL, 1978}

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in some types of cosmetics (concentration limit)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Human endocrine disruptor - moderate evidenceEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruptionEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruption{Ma, 2003}
Associated with endocrine disruptionKunz PY, Galicia HF, Fent K 2006. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of UV filters in fish. Toxicol Sci 90(2): 349-361.

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Ingredient is suspected or measured to accumulate in peopleWolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA, Chelimo C, et al 2007. Pilot study of urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols in girls. Environ Health Perspect 115(1): 116-121.
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity{NTP, 1990}
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high dosesSchlumpf M, Schmid P, Durrer S, Conscience M, Maerkel K, Henseler M, et al 2004. Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters--an update. Toxicology 205(1-2): 113-122.

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show cardiovascular effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)Hazelton Labs, 1953; Lewerenz, 1972
One or more animal studies show no adverse broad systemic effects at high doses{Homrowski, 1968; Lewerenz, 1972; IBL, 1964; Hazelton Labs, 1953}
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productJACT 2(5):35-77, 1983 confirmed 09/02 IJT 24(S1):10-18, 2005
10524 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityDanovaro R, Bongiorni L, Corinaldesi C, Giovannelli D, Damiani E, Astolfi P, Greci L, Pusceddu A "Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral infections." Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Apr;116(4):441-7.
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Not likely to be mutagenic in humans{CTFA, 1980; DHEW, 1978; Hill Top Research Labs, 1979; Litton Bioneics, 1979}

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyJACT 2(5):35-77, 1983 confirmed 09/02 IJT 24(S1):10-18, 2005

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Not likely to be a skin irritant in humans{IBL, 1967; Kligman, 1976; FDA, 1978; CFTA, 1980; FDRL, 1978}

Data Sources

  • Pont AR, Charron AR, Brand RM 2004. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 195(3): 348-354.
  • {Gupta, 1999; Potard, 2000}
  • Hanson KM, Gratton E, Bardeen CJ 2006. Sunscreen enhancement of UV-induced reactive oxygen species in the skin. Free Radic Biol Med 41(8): 1205-1212.
  • {Allen, 1996}
  • SCCP (2006) "Opinion on Benzophenone-3." European Commission - The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. SCCP/1069/06 Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/sccp_opinions_en.htm.
  • Bryden AM, Moseley H, Ibbotson SH, Chowdhury MM, Beck MH, Bourke J, et al 2006. Photopatch testing of 1155 patients: results of the U.K. multicentre photopatch study group. Br J Dermatol 155(4): 737-747.
  • {Journe, 1999}
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review) 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • {CTFA, 1979; FDA,1978; Leberco Labs, 1979; FDRL, 1978}
  • Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
  • EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
  • {Ma, 2003}
  • Kunz PY, Galicia HF, Fent K 2006. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of UV filters in fish. Toxicol Sci 90(2): 349-361.
  • Wolff MS, Teitelbaum SL, Windham G, Pinney SM, Britton JA, Chelimo C, et al 2007. Pilot study of urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols in girls. Environ Health Perspect 115(1): 116-121.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • {NTP, 1990}
  • Schlumpf M, Schmid P, Durrer S, Conscience M, Maerkel K, Henseler M, et al 2004. Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters--an update. Toxicology 205(1-2): 113-122.
  • Hazelton Labs, 1953; Lewerenz, 1972
  • {Homrowski, 1968; Lewerenz, 1972; IBL, 1964; Hazelton Labs, 1953}
  • JACT 2(5):35-77, 1983 confirmed 09/02 IJT 24(S1):10-18, 2005
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • Danovaro R, Bongiorni L, Corinaldesi C, Giovannelli D, Damiani E, Astolfi P, Greci L, Pusceddu A "Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral infections." Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Apr;116(4):441-7.
  • {CTFA, 1980; DHEW, 1978; Hill Top Research Labs, 1979; Litton Bioneics, 1979}
  • {IBL, 1967; Kligman, 1976; FDA, 1978; CFTA, 1980; FDRL, 1978}

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