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ZINC OXIDE (sunscreen grade > 100nm)

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Persistence and bioaccumulation (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), Occupational hazards (moderate), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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recreational sunscreen586 products
daily use with SPF346 products
baby sunscreen135 products
foundation128 products
CC cream58 products
diaper cream51 products
lip balm with SPF48 products
BB cream33 products
27 products
facial powder16 products
lip gloss10 products
around-eye cream5 products
lip balm4 products
lipstick3 products
concealer3 products
blush2 products
eye shadow2 products
baby powder2 products
makeup primer2 products
setting powder/spray2 products
tanning oil1 products
baby lotion1 products
toners/astringents1 products
moisturizer1 products
facial moisturizer/treatment1 products
anti-aging1 products
serums & essences1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinOpen scientific literature

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Open scientific literature

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Moderate evidence of occupational hazardsOpen scientific literature

Decreased skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Limited potential to absorb into the skin.Open scientific literature

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Possible human respiratory toxicantAssociation of Occupational and Environmental Clinics
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Associated with cardiovascular toxicityOpen scientific literature

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Found to be persistent and bioaccumulative in wildlifeOpen scientific literature

Cancer

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Concern Reference
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsOpen scientific literature
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation resultsOpen scientific literature

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicityOpen scientific literature

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
14377 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Not likely to be a reproductive toxicant in humansOpen scientific literature

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status

Data Sources

  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

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