Zinc Oxide (Sunscreen Grade > 100nm)
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
Other ConcernsEnhanced skin absorption, Persistence and bioaccumulation (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), Occupational hazards (moderate), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)
SYNONYMSA&D MEDICATED OINTMENT, ACTOX 14, ACTOX 16, ACTOX 216, AI3-00277, AKRO-ZINC BAR 85, AKRO-ZINC BAR 90, AMALOX, AZO 22, AZO-33, AZO-55, AZO-55TT, AZO-66, AZO-66TT, AZO-77, AZO-77TT, AZODOX, AZODOX-55, AZODOX-55TT, BLANC DE ZINC, C-WEISS 8, C.I. 77947, C.I. PIGMENT WHITE 4, CADOX XX 78, CASWELL NO. 920, CCRIS 1309, CHINESE WHITE, CI PIGMENT WHITE 4, CYNKU TLENEK, DOME PASTE BANDAGE, EINECS 215-222-5, ELECTOX 2500, ELECTROX 2500, EMANAY ZINC OXIDE, EMAR, EPA PESTICIDE CHEMICAL CODE 088502, FELLING ZINC OXIDE, FLORES DE ZINCI, GIAP 10, GREEN SEAL-8, HSDB 5024, HUBBUCK'S WHITE, K-ZINC, KADOX 15, KADOX 72, KADOX-25, MICRONIZED ZINC OXIDE, NO-GENOL, NOGENOL, OUTMINE, OZIDE, OZLO, PERMANENT WHITE, POWDER BASE 900, PROTOX 166, PROTOX 168, PROTOX 169, PROTOX TYPE 166, PROTOX TYPE 167, PROTOX TYPE 168, PROTOX TYPE 169, PROTOX TYPE 267, PROTOX TYPE 268, RED SEAL 9, RVPAQUE, SNOW WHITE, SUPERTAH, UNICHEM ZO, VANDEM VAC, VANDEM VOC, VANDEM VPC, WHITE SEAL-7, XX 203, XX 601, XX 78, ZINC GELATIN, ZINC MONOXIDE, ZINC OXIDE (SUNSCREEN GRADE > 100NM), ZINC OXIDE (SUNSCREEN GRADE > 100NM), ZINC OXIDE (Z-COTE), ZINC OXIDE (Z-COTE, 60NM), ZINC OXIDE (ZNO), ZINC OXIDE; ZINC OXIDE, ZINCA 20, ZINCI OXICUM, ZINCI OXYDUM, ZINCITE, ZINCOID, ZINCUM OXYDATUM, ZIRADRYL, ZN 0701T, ZN-0401 E 3/16'', and ZNO
Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation
Sunscreens with zinc oxide usually contain nanoparticles. Zinc oxide in sunscreen offers UVA protection. Nanoparticle zinc oxide in sunscreen does not penetrate healthy skin, and thus appear to pose a low health risk in lotions. Inhalation of powders and sprays is a concern, however.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|recreational sunscreen||615 products|
|daily use with SPF||371 products|
|baby sunscreen||146 products|
|CC cream||57 products|
|lip balm with SPF||50 products|
|BB cream||49 products|
|diaper cream||37 products|
|facial powder||15 products|
|lip gloss||10 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||6 products|
|around-eye cream||4 products|
|lip balm||4 products|
|eye shadow||2 products|
|setting powder/spray||2 products|
|makeup primer||2 products|
|tanning oil||1 products|
|serums & essences||1 products|
|damaged skin treatment||1 products|
|body powder||1 products|
|baby lotion||1 products|
|baby powder||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin||Nanomaterial Database|
|Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin||Open scientific literature|
Biochemical or cellular level changes
|Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.||Open scientific literature|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Moderate evidence of occupational hazards||Open scientific literature|
Decreased skin absorption
|Limited potential to absorb into the skin.||Open scientific literature|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Possible human respiratory toxicant||Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Associated with cardiovascular toxicity||Open scientific literature|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Found to be persistent and bioaccumulative in wildlife||Open scientific literature|
|One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results||Open scientific literature|
|One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results||Open scientific literature|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|14377 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Not likely to be a reproductive toxicant in humans||Open scientific literature|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
- NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.