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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (low), Endocrine disruption (moderate), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (moderate)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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foundation324 products
moisturizer268 products
mascara153 products
eye shadow136 products
eye liner128 products
concealer122 products
facial powder100 products
bronzer/highlighter85 products
lipstick83 products
brow liner81 products
facial moisturizer/treatment78 products
facial cleanser70 products
hair styling aide66 products
styling gel/lotion65 products
conditioner62 products
blush61 products
daily use with SPF48 products
body firming lotion44 products
mask43 products
hair color and bleaching40 products
lip liner36 products
sunless tanning32 products
lip gloss31 products
anti-aging30 products
hand cream28 products
shampoo28 products
around-eye cream28 products
hair treatment/serum27 products
exfoliant/scrub25 products
recreational sunscreen20 products
serums & essences20 products
mouthwash19 products
foot moisturizer18 products
toners/astringents16 products
styling mousse/foam15 products
setting powder/spray15 products
makeup remover13 products
shaving cream13 products
lip balm12 products
after sun product11 products
nail polish10 products
body wash/cleanser9 products
makeup primer9 products
hair spray7 products
skin fading/lightener7 products
pore strips7 products
eye makeup remover6 products
BB cream6 products
damaged skin treatment6 products
diaper cream5 products
hair-loss treatment5 products
glitter5 products
baby sunscreen5 products
5 products
nail treatment4 products
baby lotion4 products
cuticle treatment4 products
detangler4 products
hand sanitizer4 products
other eye makeup4 products
after shave3 products
muscle/joint soreness3 products
toothpaste2 products
foot odor control2 products
lip balm with SPF2 products
shaving cream (men's)2 products
liquid hand soap2 products
foot cleansing2 products
hair relaxer2 products
beard care2 products
tooth whitening1 products
bath oil/salts/soak1 products
hair removal waxes1 products
fragrance for women1 products
oil controller1 products
lip plumper1 products
bar soap1 products
body powder1 products
bubble bath1 products
polish remover1 products
body art1 products

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidenceEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionOpen scientific literature
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruptionEWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
Interferes with gene expresionOpen scientific literature


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Concern Reference
Human immune toxicant or allergen - moderate evidenceOpen scientific literature
One or more human case studies show possible immune or allergenic effectsOpen scientific literature

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyOpen scientific literature
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
616 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List


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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer