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METHYLPARABEN

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (low), Endocrine disruption (moderate), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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moisturizer94 products
foundation80 products
lipstick61 products
moisturizer with SPF51 products
bronzer/highlighter48 products
mascara45 products
mask42 products
beach & sport sunscreen40 products
facial moisturizer/treatment37 products
eye liner34 products
concealer34 products
brow liner33 products
body firming lotion25 products
facial powder24 products
eye shadow24 products
serums & essences22 products
facial cleanser22 products
hair color and bleaching21 products
lip balm18 products
styling gel/lotion17 products
hair styling aide17 products
makeup with SPF16 products
blush15 products
hand cream15 products
baby sunscreen13 products
around-eye cream10 products
exfoliant/scrub10 products
conditioner10 products
toners/astringents10 products
lip gloss9 products
hair treatment/serum9 products
sunless tanning9 products
shampoo8 products
lip liner8 products
pore strips8 products
Facial Sun Care8 products
foot moisturizer6 products
makeup remover6 products
makeup primer6 products
anti-aging5 products
lip balm with SPF5 products
shaving cream4 products
body wash/cleanser4 products
mouthwash4 products
other eye makeup3 products
shaving cream (men's)3 products
Oils & Serums3 products
Tanning Sprays2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
diaper cream1 products
cuticle treatment1 products
after shave1 products
after sun product1 products
hand sanitizer1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
beard cleanser1 products
hair relaxer1 products
hair spray1 products
bath oil/salts/soak1 products
oil controller1 products

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidenceEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
A review article reports parabens cause endocrine disruption in animals.Boberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Sep;30(2):301-12. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruptionByford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Jan;80(1):49-60.

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
The study identified genes which are upregulated or downregulated to a similar extent by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol.Pugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007 "Comparison of the global gene expression profiles produced by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol in MCF7 human breast cancer cells," J Appl Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-77.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
A review article reports parabens cause skin allergies.Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
Parabens listed as one of the agents capable of causing contact urticaria by immunological pathogenetic mechanism. Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Safe except for diaper ointments used on very young children.Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS) 2011. Clarification on Opinion SCCS/1348/10 in the light of the Danish clause of safeguard banning the use of parabens in cosmetic products intended for children under three years of age. October 2011. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_069.pdf

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
616 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
  • Boberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Sep;30(2):301-12. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
  • Byford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Jan;80(1):49-60.
  • Pugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007 "Comparison of the global gene expression profiles produced by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol in MCF7 human breast cancer cells," J Appl Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-77.
  • Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
  • Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS) 2011. Clarification on Opinion SCCS/1348/10 in the light of the Danish clause of safeguard banning the use of parabens in cosmetic products intended for children under three years of age. October 2011. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_069.pdf
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

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