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METHYLPARABEN

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (low), Endocrine disruption (moderate), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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moisturizer with SPF60 products
moisturizer49 products
beach & sport sunscreen47 products
lipstick47 products
foundation43 products
bronzer/highlighter37 products
mask34 products
mascara32 products
brow liner29 products
eye liner22 products
serums & essences21 products
hair color and bleaching20 products
facial moisturizer/treatment19 products
facial cleanser18 products
facial powder17 products
concealer15 products
lip balm11 products
blush10 products
hand cream9 products
eye shadow8 products
hair styling aide8 products
around-eye cream6 products
styling gel/lotion6 products
toners/astringents6 products
exfoliant/scrub5 products
lip liner5 products
baby sunscreen5 products
body wash/cleanser4 products
makeup primer4 products
mouthwash4 products
hair treatment/serum4 products
shampoo3 products
lip balm with SPF3 products
lip gloss3 products
other eye makeup3 products
BB cream3 products
conditioner3 products
foot moisturizer3 products
makeup remover3 products
shaving cream2 products
anti-aging2 products
CC cream2 products
shaving cream (men's)2 products
sunless tanning2 products
cuticle treatment1 products
after shave1 products
body firming lotion1 products
hair relaxer1 products
eye makeup remover1 products

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidenceEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionBoberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Sep;30(2):301-12. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruptionByford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Jan;80(1):49-60.

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
Interferes with gene expresionPugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007 "Comparison of the global gene expression profiles produced by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol in MCF7 human breast cancer cells," J Appl Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-77.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Human immune toxicant or allergen - moderate evidenceHarvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
One or more human case studies show possible immune or allergenic effectsHarvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyScientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS) 2011. Clarification on Opinion SCCS/1348/10 in the light of the Danish clause of safeguard banning the use of parabens in cosmetic products intended for children under three years of age. October 2011. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_069.pdf

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
616 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
  • Boberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Sep;30(2):301-12. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
  • Byford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Jan;80(1):49-60.
  • Pugazhendhi D, Sadler AJ, Darbre PD, 2007 "Comparison of the global gene expression profiles produced by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol in MCF7 human breast cancer cells," J Appl Toxicol. 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-77.
  • Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
  • Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS) 2011. Clarification on Opinion SCCS/1348/10 in the light of the Danish clause of safeguard banning the use of parabens in cosmetic products intended for children under three years of age. October 2011. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_069.pdf
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

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