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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Neurotoxicity (low), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (moderate)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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shampoo591 products
conditioner541 products
body wash/cleanser512 products
liquid hand soap415 products
bubble bath83 products
hair color and bleaching81 products
facial cleanser77 products
hair treatment/serum71 products
mask45 products
exfoliant/scrub40 products
hair styling aide37 products
styling gel/lotion26 products
moisturizer22 products
bath oil/salts/soak20 products
recreational sunscreen19 products
facial moisturizer/treatment12 products
baby shampoo12 products
baby wipes10 products
baby bubble bath10 products
daily use with SPF9 products
hand sanitizer7 products
baby soap6 products
foot cleansing6 products
beard cleanser6 products
styling mousse/foam5 products
detangler5 products
body firming lotion5 products
bar soap5 products
serums & essences5 products
glitter5 products
mascara4 products
body spray4 products
4 products
anti-aging3 products
hair spray3 products
after sun product3 products
shaving cream3 products
foot moisturizer2 products
shaving cream (men's)2 products
hair relaxer2 products
eye liner2 products
foundation2 products
eye shadow2 products
makeup remover2 products
nail polish2 products
damaged skin treatment2 products
baby oil2 products
baby lotion2 products
beard care2 products
antiperspirant/deodorant1 products
around-eye cream1 products
depilatory1 products
sunless tanning1 products
BB cream1 products
baby sunscreen1 products
after shave1 products

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsOpen scientific literature
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - concentration limit in some types of cosmetics when combined with certain other ingredient(s)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments


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Concern Reference
Known human immune toxicant or allergenOpen scientific literature
Human sensitizer toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceOpen scientific literature
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Human any toxicant or allergen - moderate evidenceOpen scientific literature
One or more human case studies show significant skin or allergenic effectsOpen scientific literature
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Possible human skin sensitizer irritantOpen scientific literature


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Concern Reference
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells demonstrate neurotoxicityOpen scientific literature


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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityOpen scientific literature
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
331 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
  • Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.


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