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Data: Fair

Linoleic Acid

IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem

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Other Concerns

Use restrictions (low), Multiple, additive exposure sources (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low)

SYNONYMS

● (Z,Z)-9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID
● 9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID
● 9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID (9Z,12Z)-
● 9,12OCTADECADIENOIC ACID (Z,Z)
● LINOLEIC ACID

Restricted

Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation


Linoleic acid is a naturally occurring unstaurated fatty acid.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • LOW
    Cancer
  • LOW
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity
  • LOW
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick73 products
facial moisturizer/treatment56 products
around-eye cream26 products
moisturizer25 products
serums & essences19 products
hair treatment/serum17 products
conditioner13 products
mask11 products
facial cleanser9 products
lip balm9 products
shampoo8 products
daily use with SPF8 products
blush8 products
anti-aging5 products
lip gloss5 products
recreational sunscreen5 products
hand cream4 products
makeup remover4 products
body wash/cleanser4 products
bronzer/highlighter3 products
body firming lotion3 products
hair styling aide3 products
exfoliant/scrub2 products
hair-loss treatment2 products
BB cream2 products
styling gel/lotion2 products
toners/astringents2 products
facial cleansing wipes1 products
fragrance for women1 products
depilatory1 products
lip balm with SPF1 products
baby oil1 products
body oil1 products
baby lotion1 products
1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
bar soap1 products
makeup primer1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant1 products
foundation1 products
hair spray1 products

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Used in food or as an additive with limited or no toxicity information availableOpen scientific literature
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
any or allergies - weight of evidence unknown/unassessedOpen scientific literature

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
any irritation - weight of evidence unknown/unassessedOpen scientific literature

Use restrictions

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyOpen scientific literature

Ecotoxicology

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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CONCERN REFERENCE
13585 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED® mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

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