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LEAD ACETATE

Score:

Data: Robust

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Persistence and bioaccumulation (high), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (high), Ecotoxicology (high), and Occupational hazards (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is HIGH

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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hair color and bleaching2 products

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human reproductive toxicantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
Limited evidence of developmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEPA Toxics Release Inventory. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/pbtrule-sum.pdf
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low dosesEPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmfulCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCosIng
Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyesFDA Color Additive Status

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Strong evidence of occupational hazardsCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenNTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 23, Suppl. 7, 87 ;2006

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesCARB, TAC

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
2161 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Data Sources

  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
  • EPA Toxics Release Inventory. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/pbtrule-sum.pdf
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
  • US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
  • Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
  • Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 23, Suppl. 7, 87 ;2006
  • CARB, TAC
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.

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