Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|hair color and bleaching||2 products|
|Known human reproductive toxicant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence||Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC|
|Limited evidence of developmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||EPA Toxics Release Inventory. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/pbtrule-sum.pdf|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Known human respiratory toxicant||EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants|
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses||EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients|
|Classified as toxic or harmful||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity||US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife||Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)|
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife||Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients|
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||CosIng|
|Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyes||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Strong evidence of occupational hazards||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Possible human carcinogen||NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition|
|Possible human carcinogen||California EPA Proposition 65|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 23, Suppl. 7, 87 ;2006|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||CARB, TAC|
|2161 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
- EPA Toxics Release Inventory. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/pbtrule-sum.pdf
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
- US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
- Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
- Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
- European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
- California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
- World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 23, Suppl. 7, 87 ;2006
- CARB, TAC
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
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