- †Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.
Other ConcernsUse restrictions (high) and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low)
SYNONYMS2-HYDROPROPANOIC ACID, 2-HYDROXY- PROPANOIC ACID, 2-HYDROXYPROPANOIC ACID, 2-HYDROXYPROPIONIC ACID, A-HYDROXYPROPANOIC ACID, LACTATE, LACTIC ACID, and PROPANOIC ACID, 2-HYDROXY-
Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid; naturally produced in the process of bacterial fermentation, for example milk fermentation. Lactic acid is frequently used as an exfoliant and in anti-wrinkle products.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reingredientive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|facial moisturizer/treatment||131 products|
|serums & essences||103 products|
|facial cleanser||96 products|
|hair treatment/serum||88 products|
|body wash/cleanser||80 products|
|lip plumper||31 products|
|around-eye cream||26 products|
|hand cream||24 products|
|hair color and bleaching||23 products|
|hair-loss treatment||18 products|
|makeup remover||18 products|
|daily use with SPF||17 products|
|hair styling aide||16 products|
|liquid hand soap||15 products|
|makeup primer||15 products|
|foot cleansing||15 products|
|foot moisturizer||12 products|
|lip liner||11 products|
|lip gloss||9 products|
|styling mousse/foam||9 products|
|hair spray||8 products|
|styling gel/lotion||8 products|
|sunless tanning||7 products|
|after shave||7 products|
|oil controller||5 products|
|body firming lotion||5 products|
|lip balm||5 products|
|fragrance for men||5 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||3 products|
|facial powder||3 products|
|setting powder/spray||3 products|
|bar soap||3 products|
|nail treatment||3 products|
|eye makeup remover||3 products|
|recreational sunscreen||3 products|
|baby wipes||2 products|
|beard cleanser||2 products|
|damaged skin treatment||2 products|
|cuticle treatment||2 products|
|skin fading/lightener||2 products|
|baby shampoo||2 products|
|baby soap||2 products|
|baby toothpaste||1 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||1 products|
|diaper cream||1 products|
|fragrance for women||1 products|
|foot odor control||1 products|
|after sun product||1 products|
|body spray||1 products|
|baby bubble bath||1 products|
|eye liner||1 products|
|hand sanitizer||1 products|
|bubble bath||1 products|
|eye shadow||1 products|
|body oil||1 products|
|baby lotion||1 products|
|shaving cream||1 products|
|Violation of industry recommendations - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Allowable pH limits||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmetics||Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Single case study detailing occupational hazards||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|143272 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Allowable pH limits||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.