- †This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for damaged skin due to increased risk of absorption.
Other ConcernsUse restrictions (high) and Endocrine disruption (moderate)
SYNONYMS4H-PYRAN-4-ONE, 5-HYDROXY-2-(HYDROXYMETHYL)-, 5-HYDROXY-2-(HYDROXYMETHYL)- 4H-PYRAN-4-ONE, 5-HYDROXY-2-(HYDROXYMETHYL)-4H-PYRAN-4-ONE, 5-HYDROXY-2-HYDROXYMETHYL-4-PYRONE, and KOJIC ACID
Kojic Acid is a heterocyclic compound.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
MODERATEAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reingredientive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|Possible human Sensitizer toxicant or allergen||Open scientific literature|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - unsafe for use on injured or damaged skin||Open scientific literature|
|Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - any||Open scientific literature|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - any||Open scientific literature|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||Open scientific literature|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Limited evidence of endocrine disruption||Open scientific literature|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|481 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.