Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|nail polish||482 products|
|hair color and bleaching||130 products|
|hair treatment/serum||52 products|
|hand sanitizer||50 products|
|lip gloss||29 products|
|hair styling aide||27 products|
|nail treatment||13 products|
|styling gel/lotion||7 products|
|hair spray||7 products|
|body wash/cleanser||5 products|
|facial cleanser||5 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||4 products|
|after sun product||4 products|
|serums & essences||3 products|
|after shave||3 products|
|daily use with SPF||2 products|
|foot odor control||2 products|
|styling mousse/foam||2 products|
|foot moisturizer||2 products|
|body firming lotion||2 products|
|hand cream||2 products|
|makeup remover||2 products|
|makeup primer||2 products|
|damaged skin treatment||1 products|
|nail glue||1 products|
|hair-loss treatment||1 products|
|BB cream||1 products|
|body spray||1 products|
|lip balm||1 products|
|hair relaxer||1 products|
|beard cleanser||1 products|
|brow liner||1 products|
|beard care||1 products|
|CC cream||1 products|
|body oil||1 products|
|eye liner||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Penetration enhancer||Open scientific literature|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as any irritant||Open scientific literature|
|Moderate evidence of occupational hazards||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of occupational hazards||Open scientific literature|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as toxic or harmful.||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Associated with any toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity or allergies||Open scientific literature|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|112675 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer