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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high) and Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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body wash/cleanser77 products
conditioner69 products
foundation64 products
shampoo60 products
hair styling aide42 products
makeup remover33 products
hair treatment/serum31 products
moisturizer25 products
mask24 products
eye shadow23 products
daily use with SPF22 products
styling gel/lotion21 products
exfoliant/scrub20 products
facial cleanser20 products
baby wipes18 products
liquid hand soap15 products
facial moisturizer/treatment15 products
body firming lotion15 products
eye liner14 products
serums & essences10 products
concealer9 products
foot cleansing8 products
eye makeup remover8 products
recreational sunscreen8 products
mascara8 products
detangler7 products
hair spray7 products
glitter5 products
after sun product5 products
after shave5 products
4 products
makeup primer4 products
CC cream4 products
styling mousse/foam4 products
shaving cream (men's)4 products
foot moisturizer4 products
hand cream3 products
hand sanitizer3 products
anti-aging3 products
body oil3 products
sunless tanning2 products
beard care2 products
beard cleanser2 products
around-eye cream2 products
brow liner2 products
nail polish1 products
bar soap1 products
hair relaxer1 products
toners/astringents1 products
setting powder/spray1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)1 products

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of industry recommendations - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Not safe for use in products intended to be aerosolized, according to industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in some types of cosmetics (concentration limit)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments


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Concern Reference
Human any toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
One or more human case studies show significant immune or allergenic effectsOpen scientific literature

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver Toxicity Information
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List


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Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Safety assessment was based on related chemicalCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
50 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Not safe for use in products intended to be aerosolized, according to industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


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