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HYDROQUINONE

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (high), and Ecotoxicology (low)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW_MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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serums & essences1 products

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low dosesEPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Timbrell, J.A. Introduction to Toxicology. Taylor and Francis, New York. 1995. (Table 5.1: Types of skin sensitizers).
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCosIng
Violation of industry recommendations - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Safe for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsingCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - anyCosIng
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceEWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate. Labelling of chemical products, Swedish regulations and general advice with regard to the classification and labelling of chemical products hazardous to health, flammables and explosives. List of Allergenic Substances. National Chemicals Inspectorate, Solna, Sweden. 1987, 1990-1992.
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityAmer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidenceCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Cancer - limited evidenceCarcinogenic Potency Database http://potency.berkeley.edu/app14.html Environmental Defense reviewed this compilation of results on carcinogenicity in rats and mice covering 1298 chemicals and added any chemical with positive results in at least two species by a relevant route of exposure to its list of suspect carcinogens.
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 15, Suppl. 7, 71 ;1999

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityFrazier , L and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
6109 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Safe for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsingCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Timbrell, J.A. Introduction to Toxicology. Taylor and Francis, New York. 1995. (Table 5.1: Types of skin sensitizers).
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
  • A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate. Labelling of chemical products, Swedish regulations and general advice with regard to the classification and labelling of chemical products hazardous to health, flammables and explosives. List of Allergenic Substances. National Chemicals Inspectorate, Solna, Sweden. 1987, 1990-1992.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
  • Carcinogenic Potency Database http://potency.berkeley.edu/app14.html Environmental Defense reviewed this compilation of results on carcinogenicity in rats and mice covering 1298 chemicals and added any chemical with positive results in at least two species by a relevant route of exposure to its list of suspect carcinogens.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 15, Suppl. 7, 71 ;1999
  • Frazier , L and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

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