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Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Use restrictions (low), and Contamination concerns (high)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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serums & essences92 products
eye shadow78 products
facial moisturizer/treatment73 products
lipstick45 products
mask39 products
foundation39 products
daily use with SPF29 products
bronzer/highlighter24 products
moisturizer19 products
lip gloss17 products
concealer17 products
around-eye cream13 products
facial powder12 products
mascara12 products
facial cleanser9 products
blush7 products
makeup primer6 products
BB cream5 products
anti-aging5 products
toners/astringents5 products
setting powder/spray5 products
shampoo4 products
baby lotion4 products
body firming lotion4 products
CC cream3 products
lip balm3 products
hair styling aide3 products
hand sanitizer3 products
hand cream3 products
hair color and bleaching3 products
2 products
recreational sunscreen2 products
body wash/cleanser2 products
baby shampoo1 products
foot cleansing1 products
exfoliant/scrub1 products
foot moisturizer1 products
shaving cream (men's)1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
after shave1 products
baby soap1 products
makeup remover1 products
oil controller1 products
conditioner1 products

Contamination concerns

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Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Penetration enhancerCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Safety unknown for products that may be inhaledCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
12 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met the program’s impurity restrictions based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer