Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|daily use with SPF||37 products|
|eye shadow||30 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||29 products|
|body firming lotion||26 products|
|hair styling aide||22 products|
|sunless tanning||20 products|
|eye liner||18 products|
|facial cleanser||16 products|
|around-eye cream||16 products|
|styling gel/lotion||15 products|
|serums & essences||14 products|
|BB cream||8 products|
|styling mousse/foam||6 products|
|recreational sunscreen||6 products|
|lip liner||6 products|
|facial powder||5 products|
|shaving cream||5 products|
|hair treatment/serum||5 products|
|makeup remover||4 products|
|makeup primer||4 products|
|setting powder/spray||3 products|
|hand cream||2 products|
|hair color and bleaching||2 products|
|baby lotion||2 products|
|foot moisturizer||2 products|
|brow liner||2 products|
|baby sunscreen||2 products|
|hair spray||1 products|
|skin fading/lightener||1 products|
|after shave||1 products|
|lip gloss||1 products|
|lip balm||1 products|
|hand sanitizer||1 products|
|cuticle treatment||1 products|
|hair relaxer||1 products|
|body oil||1 products|
|Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidence||European Commission on Endocrine Disruption|
|One or more studies show significant wildlife and the environment disruption||European Commission on Endocrine Disruption|
|A review article reports parabens cause endocrine disruption in animals.||Boberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Sep;30(2):301-12. Epub 2010 Apr 8.|
|One or more studies show weak endocrine disruption||Byford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Jan;80(1):49-60.|
|A review article reports parabens cause skin allergies.||Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).|
|Parabens listed as one of the agents capable of causing contact urticaria by immunological pathogenetic mechanism.||Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Safe except for diaper ointments used on very young children.||Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS) 2011. Clarification on Opinion SCCS/1348/10 in the light of the Danish clause of safeguard banning the use of parabens in cosmetic products intended for children under three years of age. October 2011. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_069.pdf|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|193 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
- Boberg J, Taxvig C, Christiansen S, Hass U Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Sep;30(2):301-12. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
- Byford JR, Shaw LE, Drew MG, Pope GS, Sauer MJ, Darbre PD Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Jan;80(1):49-60.
- Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria).
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS) 2011. Clarification on Opinion SCCS/1348/10 in the light of the Danish clause of safeguard banning the use of parabens in cosmetic products intended for children under three years of age. October 2011. http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_069.pdf
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
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