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Data: Good

Limonene

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem

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Other Concerns

Use restrictions (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

SYNONYMS

1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)- CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-ISOPROPENPYLCYCLOHEXENE, CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, D,L-LIMONENE (ISOMER UNSPECIFIED), DIPENTENE, DL-LIMONENE, DL-LIMONENE (RACEMIC), LIMONENE, and LIMONENE ESSENTIAL OIL

Limonene is a scent ingredient and solvent naturally ocurring in the rind of citrus fruit. Upon storage and exposure to sunlight and air, limonene degrades to various oxidation products which act as skin and respiratory irritants and sensitizers.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • LOW
    Cancer
  • HIGH
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reingredientive Toxicity
  • MODERATE
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

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shampoo541 products
conditioner444 products
moisturizer375 products
facial moisturizer/treatment342 products
body wash/cleanser323 products
fragrance for women312 products
hair treatment/serum308 products
foundation251 products
mask210 products
lip balm203 products
hair styling aide187 products
facial cleanser181 products
liquid hand soap168 products
lipstick165 products
serums & essences165 products
exfoliant/scrub149 products
fragrance for men137 products
hand cream124 products
antiperspirant/deodorant113 products
styling gel/lotion106 products
bar soap100 products
body spray98 products
lip gloss89 products
daily use with SPF83 products
hair spray82 products
bath oil/salts/soak65 products
hair color and bleaching61 products
body oil60 products
sunless tanning55 products
toners/astringents51 products
hand sanitizer43 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)42 products
lip balm with SPF38 products
body firming lotion37 products
makeup primer36 products
concealer34 products
CC cream33 products
styling mousse/foam29 products
around-eye cream27 products
detangler26 products
makeup remover26 products
bronzer/highlighter26 products
shaving cream25 products
bubble bath24 products
setting powder/spray23 products
blush22 products
recreational sunscreen22 products
22 products
anti-aging18 products
lip plumper17 products
after shave16 products
foot moisturizer16 products
shaving cream (men's)15 products
toothpaste14 products
baby shampoo13 products
baby soap12 products
baby lotion11 products
beard oil11 products
skin fading/lightener10 products
after sun product8 products
muscle/joint soreness8 products
hair-loss treatment8 products
nail treatment7 products
cuticle treatment6 products
nail polish5 products
facial powder5 products
BB cream5 products
beard care5 products
tanning oil4 products
mascara4 products
baby sunscreen4 products
diaper cream3 products
foot odor control3 products
baby bubble bath3 products
depilatory3 products
oil controller3 products
brow liner3 products
polish remover2 products
foot cleansing2 products
body powder2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
mouthwash2 products
baby wipes2 products
beard cleanser2 products
baby oil1 products
glitter1 products
eyelash glue1 products
baby powder1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
lip liner1 products
depilatory (men's)1 products
nail glue1 products
hair removal waxes1 products

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Classified as irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpen scientific literature
Possible human immune system toxicant or allergenSCCPNFP Opinion on Fragrance Allergy
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Use restrictions

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensCosIng

Ecotoxicology

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxinOpen scientific literature
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high dosesOpen scientific literature

Miscellaneous

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Occupational hazards related to handlingCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards

Data gaps

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CONCERN REFERENCE
2859 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • SCCPNFP (Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products). 1999. Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers. . SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999; and SCCPNFP (Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products). 2000. An Initial List Of Perfumery Materials Which Must Not Form Part Of Fragrances Compounds Used In Cosmetic Products. SCCNFP/0320/00, final May 2000.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • IFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

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