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LIMONENE

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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facial moisturizer/treatment167 products
lipstick165 products
shampoo155 products
moisturizer132 products
fragrance for women118 products
body wash/cleanser117 products
conditioner110 products
serums & essences108 products
foundation101 products
moisturizer with SPF98 products
lip gloss93 products
facial cleanser76 products
mask65 products
exfoliant/scrub58 products
bath oil/salts/soak58 products
lip balm57 products
hair treatment/serum49 products
fragrance for men38 products
beach & sport sunscreen38 products
liquid hand soap33 products
hair styling aide32 products
styling gel/lotion32 products
antiperspirant/deodorant31 products
bar soap30 products
hand cream29 products
bronzer/highlighter29 products
lip balm with SPF26 products
body oil23 products
hair spray21 products
shaving cream19 products
toners/astringents18 products
makeup remover17 products
blush16 products
makeup primer15 products
body spray14 products
body firming lotion14 products
concealer14 products
lip liner14 products
sunless tanning12 products
hair color and bleaching11 products
around-eye cream10 products
styling mousse/foam9 products
baby shampoo9 products
detangler8 products
bubble bath8 products
BB cream8 products
lip plumper7 products
shaving cream (men's)6 products
Facial Sun Care6 products
hand sanitizer6 products
baby soap6 products
eye shadow6 products
vapor rubs6 products
anti-aging5 products
foot moisturizer5 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)5 products
other men's products5 products
toothpaste5 products
baby lotion5 products
mouthwash5 products
after shave4 products
baby oil4 products
mascara4 products
after sun product3 products
baby bubble bath3 products
beard oil3 products
oil controller3 products
facial powder2 products
muscle/joint soreness2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
baby sunscreen2 products
makeup with SPF1 products
cuticle treatment1 products
foot cleansing1 products
baby powder1 products
baby wipes1 products
other eye makeup1 products
hair relaxer1 products
CC cream1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
Possible human immune system toxicant or allergenSCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Classified as irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensCosIng

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high dosesKodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05951; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-; ; CAS: 5989-54-8
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
2859 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Opinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
  • SCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • IFRA_Standard_45html
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05951; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-; ; CAS: 5989-54-8
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

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