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LIMONENE

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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shampoo549 products
conditioner439 products
facial moisturizer/treatment294 products
moisturizer272 products
hair treatment/serum262 products
foundation259 products
body wash/cleanser246 products
fragrance for women244 products
hair styling aide236 products
lipstick213 products
mask184 products
lip balm167 products
lip gloss158 products
facial cleanser154 products
liquid hand soap140 products
fragrance for men131 products
serums & essences129 products
exfoliant/scrub123 products
hair spray121 products
styling gel/lotion120 products
hand cream91 products
bath oil/salts/soak85 products
bar soap83 products
body spray80 products
antiperspirant/deodorant76 products
body firming lotion76 products
daily use with SPF72 products
hair color and bleaching67 products
toners/astringents50 products
sunless tanning47 products
bronzer/highlighter47 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)42 products
body oil41 products
makeup primer41 products
styling mousse/foam36 products
detangler33 products
shaving cream33 products
hand sanitizer32 products
blush27 products
around-eye cream25 products
makeup remover25 products
concealer25 products
recreational sunscreen25 products
25 products
foot moisturizer23 products
anti-aging21 products
lip plumper21 products
toothpaste20 products
after shave20 products
bubble bath20 products
lip balm with SPF19 products
baby shampoo16 products
shaving cream (men's)15 products
setting powder/spray15 products
baby soap11 products
beard oil11 products
baby lotion10 products
facial powder9 products
muscle/joint soreness9 products
foot cleansing8 products
BB cream8 products
lip liner8 products
after sun product7 products
eye shadow7 products
beard care6 products
body powder5 products
vapor rubs5 products
cuticle treatment4 products
skin fading/lightener4 products
mascara4 products
mouthwash4 products
CC cream4 products
baby sunscreen4 products
diaper cream3 products
nail polish3 products
tanning oil3 products
baby bubble bath3 products
damaged skin treatment3 products
nail treatment2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
hair relaxer2 products
oil controller2 products
hair-loss treatment2 products
beard cleanser2 products
polish remover1 products
baby oil1 products
glitter1 products
depilatory1 products
eyelash glue1 products
other eye makeup1 products
baby wipes1 products
nail glue1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
Possible human immune system toxicant or allergenSCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Classified as irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensCosIng

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05951; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-; ; CAS: 5989-54-8
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
2859 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • Opinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
  • SCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • IFRA_Standard_45html
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05951; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-; ; CAS: 5989-54-8
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

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