- †Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.
Other ConcernsUse restrictions (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)
SYNONYMS1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)- CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-ISOPROPENPYLCYCLOHEXENE, CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, D,L-LIMONENE (ISOMER UNSPECIFIED), DIPENTENE, DL-LIMONENE, DL-LIMONENE (RACEMIC), LIMONENE, and LIMONENE ESSENTIAL OIL
Limonene is a scent ingredient and solvent naturally ocurring in the rind of citrus fruit. Upon storage and exposure to sunlight and air, limonene degrades to various oxidation products which act as skin and respiratory irritants and sensitizers.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
HIGHAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|facial moisturizer/treatment||349 products|
|body wash/cleanser||332 products|
|fragrance for women||329 products|
|hair treatment/serum||312 products|
|lip balm||207 products|
|hair styling aide||188 products|
|facial cleanser||185 products|
|serums & essences||168 products|
|liquid hand soap||166 products|
|fragrance for men||136 products|
|hand cream||128 products|
|styling gel/lotion||107 products|
|bar soap||101 products|
|body spray||96 products|
|lip gloss||90 products|
|hair spray||84 products|
|daily use with SPF||83 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||65 products|
|hair color and bleaching||63 products|
|body oil||61 products|
|sunless tanning||55 products|
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||43 products|
|hand sanitizer||43 products|
|body firming lotion||40 products|
|lip balm with SPF||38 products|
|makeup primer||36 products|
|CC cream||33 products|
|styling mousse/foam||32 products|
|around-eye cream||27 products|
|shaving cream||26 products|
|makeup remover||25 products|
|bubble bath||24 products|
|setting powder/spray||23 products|
|recreational sunscreen||22 products|
|lip plumper||20 products|
|after shave||16 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||16 products|
|foot moisturizer||16 products|
|baby shampoo||13 products|
|baby soap||12 products|
|baby lotion||11 products|
|beard oil||11 products|
|skin fading/lightener||10 products|
|nail treatment||9 products|
|after sun product||8 products|
|muscle/joint soreness||8 products|
|hair-loss treatment||8 products|
|cuticle treatment||7 products|
|nail polish||5 products|
|facial powder||5 products|
|BB cream||5 products|
|beard care||5 products|
|baby sunscreen||4 products|
|polish remover||3 products|
|diaper cream||3 products|
|foot odor control||3 products|
|tanning oil||3 products|
|baby bubble bath||3 products|
|eyelash glue||3 products|
|oil controller||3 products|
|beard cleanser||3 products|
|brow liner||3 products|
|foot cleansing||2 products|
|body powder||2 products|
|eye makeup remover||2 products|
|baby wipes||2 products|
|baby oil||1 products|
|baby powder||1 products|
|damaged skin treatment||1 products|
|lip liner||1 products|
|depilatory (men's)||1 products|
|nail glue||1 products|
|hair removal waxes||1 products|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as irritant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Known human any toxicant or allergen||Open scientific literature|
|Possible human immune system toxicant or allergen||SCCPNFP Opinion on Fragrance Allergy|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)||International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards|
|Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergens||CosIng|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses||Open scientific literature|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)||International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards|
|2859 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- SCCPNFP (Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products). 1999. Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers. . SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999; and SCCPNFP (Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products). 2000. An Initial List Of Perfumery Materials Which Must Not Form Part Of Fragrances Compounds Used In Cosmetic Products. SCCNFP/0320/00, final May 2000.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- IFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
- European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.