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Data: Good

Limonene

  • Products with this ingredient are allowed for use in EWG VERIFIED but must meet use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.
  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem

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Other Concerns

Use restrictions (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

SYNONYMS

● 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)- CYCLOHEXENE
● 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)CYCLOHEXENE
● 1-METHYL-4-ISOPROPENPYLCYCLOHEXENE
● CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-
● D,L-LIMONENE (ISOMER UNSPECIFIED)
● DIPENTENE
● DL-LIMONENE
● DL-LIMONENE (RACEMIC)
● LIMONENE
● LIMONENE ESSENTIAL OIL

Restricted

Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation


Limonene is a scent ingredient and solvent naturally ocurring in the rind of citrus fruit. Upon storage and exposure to sunlight and air, limonene degrades to various oxidation products which act as skin and respiratory irritants and sensitizers.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • LOW
    Cancer
  • HIGH
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity
  • MODERATE
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
shampoo761 products
conditioner685 products
hair treatment/serum496 products
moisturizer460 products
hair styling aide399 products
facial moisturizer/treatment390 products
fragrance for women388 products
body wash/cleanser374 products
foundation248 products
lip balm218 products
styling gel/lotion203 products
mask194 products
exfoliant/scrub185 products
facial cleanser184 products
serums & essences181 products
liquid hand soap176 products
lipstick173 products
hair spray162 products
antiperspirant/deodorant146 products
lip gloss144 products
hand cream143 products
fragrance for men139 products
body spray128 products
bar soap125 products
daily use with SPF82 products
styling mousse/foam76 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)73 products
hair color and bleaching72 products
sunless tanning69 products
body oil68 products
bath oil/salts/soak57 products
concealer47 products
toners/astringents43 products
around-eye cream35 products
after shave34 products
body firming lotion34 products
makeup primer34 products
lip plumper33 products
hand sanitizer32 products
setting powder/spray30 products
detangler29 products
lip balm with SPF29 products
blush29 products
toothpaste24 products
shaving cream24 products
CC cream22 products
makeup remover20 products
recreational sunscreen20 products
polish remover18 products
bubble bath18 products
beard care17 products
anti-aging16 products
eye shadow14 products
beard oil14 products
baby shampoo13 products
13 products
shaving cream (men's)11 products
foot moisturizer10 products
baby soap10 products
skin fading/lightener10 products
nail treatment9 products
eyelash glue9 products
cuticle treatment8 products
baby lotion8 products
bronzer/highlighter8 products
after sun product8 products
hair-loss treatment8 products
beard cleanser8 products
tanning oil7 products
muscle/joint soreness7 products
nail polish5 products
facial powder5 products
brow liner5 products
body powder4 products
mascara4 products
depilatory4 products
BB cream4 products
hair removal waxes4 products
foot odor control3 products
baby bubble bath3 products
baby sunscreen3 products
nail glue3 products
diaper cream2 products
baby oil2 products
glitter2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
hair relaxer2 products
mouthwash2 products
baby powder2 products
baby wipes2 products
facial cleansing wipes2 products
baby toothpaste1 products
foot cleansing1 products
oil controller1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
lip liner1 products
pore strips1 products
exfoliant/scrub - large particle1 products

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Classified as irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpen scientific literature
Human any toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceOpen scientific literature
Possible human immune system toxicant or allergenSCCPNFP Opinion on Fragrance Allergy
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Use restrictions

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensCosIng

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeOpen scientific literature
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high dosesOpen scientific literature

Ecotoxicology

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxinOpen scientific literature
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Occupational hazards related to handlingCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Not likely to be carcinogenic in humansOpen scientific literature

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Informational

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data gaps

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CONCERN REFERENCE
2859 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • SCCPNFP (Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products). 1999. Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers. . SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999; and SCCPNFP (Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products). 2000. An Initial List Of Perfumery Materials Which Must Not Form Part Of Fragrances Compounds Used In Cosmetic Products. SCCNFP/0320/00, final May 2000.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • IFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED® mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

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