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LIMONENE

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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shampoo187 products
lipstick181 products
facial moisturizer/treatment168 products
moisturizer163 products
fragrance for women160 products
body wash/cleanser143 products
conditioner126 products
serums & essences121 products
foundation108 products
lip gloss102 products
mask90 products
facial cleanser89 products
fragrance for men71 products
hair treatment/serum67 products
exfoliant/scrub63 products
bath oil/salts/soak60 products
lip balm59 products
moisturizer with SPF55 products
hand cream48 products
hair styling aide46 products
liquid hand soap44 products
styling gel/lotion40 products
hair spray39 products
bar soap39 products
antiperspirant/deodorant34 products
bronzer/highlighter32 products
toners/astringents25 products
body firming lotion24 products
blush21 products
makeup primer21 products
shaving cream21 products
body spray19 products
hair color and bleaching18 products
body oil18 products
sunless tanning17 products
beach & sport sunscreen17 products
makeup remover17 products
lip balm with SPF16 products
lip liner14 products
concealer13 products
detangler13 products
around-eye cream12 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)12 products
hand sanitizer10 products
styling mousse/foam10 products
foot moisturizer10 products
lip plumper9 products
after shave8 products
baby soap8 products
baby shampoo8 products
eye shadow7 products
baby lotion7 products
anti-aging7 products
bubble bath7 products
shaving cream (men's)6 products
hair relaxer5 products
toothpaste5 products
vapor rubs5 products
other men's products5 products
mascara4 products
oil controller3 products
mouthwash3 products
facial powder3 products
cuticle treatment3 products
after sun product3 products
baby oil2 products
damaged skin treatment2 products
baby bubble bath2 products
foot cleansing2 products
muscle/joint soreness2 products
diaper cream2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
beard oil2 products
nail treatment1 products
baby sunscreen1 products
BB cream1 products
depilatory1 products
baby powder1 products
baby wipes1 products
other eye makeup1 products
beard care1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
Possible human immune system toxicant or allergenSCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Classified as irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensCosIng

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05951; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-; ; CAS: 5989-54-8
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
2859 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Opinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
  • SCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • IFRA_Standard_45html
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05951; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-; ; CAS: 5989-54-8
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

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