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LIMONENE

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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shampoo405 products
conditioner303 products
facial moisturizer/treatment256 products
moisturizer225 products
fragrance for women218 products
body wash/cleanser215 products
foundation200 products
lipstick195 products
hair treatment/serum171 products
serums & essences166 products
hair styling aide158 products
mask148 products
facial cleanser135 products
lip gloss123 products
fragrance for men118 products
lip balm118 products
liquid hand soap110 products
exfoliant/scrub104 products
hair spray94 products
styling gel/lotion81 products
hand cream78 products
bath oil/salts/soak77 products
bar soap70 products
antiperspirant/deodorant69 products
daily use with SPF66 products
body firming lotion58 products
bronzer/highlighter43 products
toners/astringents40 products
makeup primer38 products
body oil35 products
sunless tanning35 products
hair color and bleaching33 products
body spray31 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)29 products
shaving cream28 products
detangler27 products
blush27 products
concealer25 products
styling mousse/foam22 products
foot moisturizer22 products
22 products
around-eye cream21 products
makeup remover21 products
anti-aging20 products
recreational sunscreen20 products
after shave18 products
bubble bath18 products
lip balm with SPF18 products
shaving cream (men's)17 products
baby shampoo15 products
lip plumper13 products
toothpaste13 products
hand sanitizer13 products
baby soap12 products
setting powder/spray12 products
baby lotion10 products
foot cleansing8 products
BB cream8 products
lip liner8 products
eye shadow7 products
hair relaxer6 products
muscle/joint soreness6 products
beard oil6 products
beard care6 products
cuticle treatment5 products
after sun product5 products
vapor rubs5 products
diaper cream4 products
body powder4 products
mascara4 products
mouthwash4 products
facial powder4 products
CC cream4 products
baby sunscreen4 products
baby oil3 products
oil controller3 products
nail treatment2 products
baby bubble bath2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
damaged skin treatment2 products
beard cleanser2 products
polish remover1 products
nail polish1 products
tanning oil1 products
glitter1 products
depilatory1 products
eyelash glue1 products
baby powder1 products
other eye makeup1 products
baby wipes1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
Possible human immune system toxicant or allergenSCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Classified as irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensCosIng

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05951; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-; ; CAS: 5989-54-8
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
2859 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • Opinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
  • SCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • IFRA_Standard_45html
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05951; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-; ; CAS: 5989-54-8
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

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