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LIMONENE

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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facial moisturizer/treatment156 products
lipstick126 products
moisturizer124 products
shampoo123 products
serums & essences107 products
body wash/cleanser105 products
fragrance for women104 products
lip gloss83 products
conditioner82 products
foundation71 products
facial cleanser68 products
bath oil/salts/soak58 products
moisturizer with SPF56 products
mask55 products
exfoliant/scrub54 products
lip balm43 products
fragrance for men32 products
hair treatment/serum29 products
liquid hand soap26 products
antiperspirant/deodorant25 products
hair styling aide25 products
styling gel/lotion24 products
bar soap24 products
body oil23 products
bronzer/highlighter21 products
hand cream19 products
toners/astringents19 products
beach & sport sunscreen18 products
shaving cream18 products
blush16 products
lip liner14 products
makeup primer14 products
body spray14 products
makeup remover14 products
concealer12 products
hair spray11 products
hair color and bleaching11 products
around-eye cream11 products
sunless tanning10 products
lip balm with SPF9 products
baby shampoo8 products
eye shadow7 products
detangler7 products
lip plumper7 products
hand sanitizer6 products
vapor rubs6 products
body firming lotion6 products
bubble bath6 products
baby soap5 products
toothpaste5 products
mouthwash5 products
other men's products5 products
after shave4 products
baby oil4 products
mascara4 products
baby lotion4 products
anti-aging4 products
styling mousse/foam4 products
foot moisturizer4 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)4 products
oil controller3 products
BB cream3 products
shaving cream (men's)3 products
after sun product3 products
baby bubble bath3 products
beard oil3 products
facial powder2 products
muscle/joint soreness2 products
hair relaxer1 products
foot odor control1 products
baby sunscreen1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
cuticle treatment1 products
foot cleansing1 products
baby powder1 products
eye makeup remover1 products
baby wipes1 products
other eye makeup1 products

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Classified as irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Possible human immune system toxicant or allergenSCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - anyCosIng
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high dosesKodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
2859 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only if satisfies manufacturing specifications or purity limits, according to industry safety panel (International Fragrance Association)IFRA_Standard_45html

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • SCCPNFP, 1999 "Opinion Concerning Fragrance Allergy In Consumers," Scientific Committee On Cosmetic Products And Non-Food Products. SCCNFP/0017/98 Final, December 1999.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
  • IFRA_Standard_45html
  • Kodama R, Okubo A,Araki E,Noda K,Ide H, Ikeda T Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer. (VII). Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings 1977; Oyo Yakuri. 13(6): 863-873.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 73;1999
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

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