Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|In human epidemiological studies, diethyl phthalate has been associated with decreased anogenital distance (marker of reproductive system development) in baby boys, changes in the levels of reproductive hormones, and sperm DNA damage.||Swan SH 2008. Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans. Environ Res 108(2): 177-84.|
|Diethyl phthalate (DEP) affected the expression of estrogen responsive genes in a manner similar to natural estrogen.||Parveen M, Inoue A, Ise R, Tanji M, Kiyama R 2008. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of phthalate esters by gene expression profiling using a focused microarray (EstrArray). Environ Toxicol Chem. 27(6): 1416-25.|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|One or more animal studies show any effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Safety assessment was based on related chemical||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|2983 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- Swan SH 2008. Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans. Environ Res 108(2): 177-84.
- Parveen M, Inoue A, Ise R, Tanji M, Kiyama R 2008. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of phthalate esters by gene expression profiling using a focused microarray (EstrArray). Environ Toxicol Chem. 27(6): 1416-25.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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