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D&C Violet No. 2 (CI 60725)

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Endocrine disruption (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Ecotoxicology (low)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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nail polish105 products
liquid hand soap3 products
mask2 products
bath oil/salts/soak2 products
hair styling aide2 products
body wash/cleanser2 products
exfoliant/scrub1 products
serums & essences1 products
nail treatment1 products
conditioner1 products
shampoo1 products
facial cleanser1 products
hair treatment/serum1 products
moisturizer with SPF1 products
foot cleansing1 products
baby bubble bath1 products
styling gel/lotion1 products
bar soap1 products

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics: external use onlyFDA Color Additive Status

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Cancer - limited evidenceSilent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
May cause an allergic skin reaction. European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: 1-hydroxy-4-(p-toluidino)anthraquinone; 1-hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione; -; 1-Hydroxy-4-(p-toluidino)anthraquinone; 1-Hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthraquinone; 1-hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-; cas_numbers: 81-48-1
A peer-reviewed study reports this substance induced hypersensitivity in animal testing.Seishiro Fujii 2003. Evaluation of hypersensitivity to anthraquinone-related substances. Toxicology 193(3), 261-7.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: 1-hydroxy-4-(p-toluidino)anthraquinone; 1-hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione; -; 1-Hydroxy-4-(p-toluidino)anthraquinone; 1-Hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthraquinone; 1-hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-; cas_numbers: 81-48-1

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Evidence of endocrine activity from cellular assays and modeling.National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2020. EWG Toxcast Analysis. Appears as: CAS: 81-48-1;

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
94 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics: external use onlyFDA Color Additive Status

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Rudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: 1-hydroxy-4-(p-toluidino)anthraquinone; 1-hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-dione; -; 1-Hydroxy-4-(p-toluidino)anthraquinone; 1-Hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthraquinone; 1-hydroxy-4-[(4-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-; cas_numbers: 81-48-1
  • Seishiro Fujii 2003. Evaluation of hypersensitivity to anthraquinone-related substances. Toxicology 193(3), 261-7.
  • National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2020. EWG Toxcast Analysis. Appears as: CAS: 81-48-1;
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for damaged skin due to increased risk of absorption.
  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for use around mouth due to increased risk of ingestion and absorption.
  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for use on lips due to increased risk of ingestion and absorption.
  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for use around the eyes due to increased risk of absorption.

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