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CI 45410 (D&C Red No. 27 or 28) Lake

Score:

Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Endocrine disruption (low), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick1157 products
lip gloss204 products
lip liner109 products
lip balm80 products
blush77 products
bronzer/highlighter23 products
lip balm with SPF18 products
facial powder16 products
foundation13 products
eye liner7 products
eye shadow5 products
lip plumper4 products
nail polish4 products
hair color and bleaching4 products
makeup primer2 products
mask1 products
bath oil/salts/soak1 products
body oil1 products
fragrance for men1 products

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyesFDA Color Additive Status
Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyesUS. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2015. Color Additive Status. Appears as: listid: COLOR-121; Chemical_Name: D&C Red 28; ;
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyFDA Color Additive Status

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Suspected persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Environment Canada, July 2006 chemical inventory reviewEnvironment Canada 2015. Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). Appears as: listid: PBT-CANADA-477; Chemical_Name: BENZOIC ACID, 2,3,4,5TETRACHLORO6(2,4,5,7TETRABROMO6HYDROXY3OXO3HXANTHEN9YL); ; CAS: 2134-15-8

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-04548; Chemical_Name: Benzoic acid, 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-6-(2, 4,5,7-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl) -; ; CAS: 2134-15-8
Limited evidence of any toxicityKlaassen, C, M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of eye irritation European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website.
Irritating to the rabbit eye.Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2012. Opinion on Acid Red 92.

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Increased incidence of pituitary tumors in mice. Mutagenicity observed in a bacerial cell assay but not mammalian tests (in vitro or in vivo).Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2012. Opinion on Acid Red 92.

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of teratogenicity in dietary exposure studies in mice.Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2012. Opinion on Acid Red 92.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-04548; Chemical_Name: Benzoic acid, 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-6-(2, 4,5,7-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl) -; ; CAS: 2134-15-8
This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-04548; Chemical_Name: Benzoic acid, 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-6-(2, 4,5,7-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl) -; ; CAS: 2134-15-8
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative (uncertainty in environmental toxicity or persistence/bioaccumulation)Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
REACH registrations indicate this substance is toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen-9-yl)benzoic acid; -; 2
Uncertain environmental toxin and uncertain persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Modeling suggests this substance may interact with the androgen receptor.National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2020. EWG Toxcast Analysis. Appears as: CAS: 13473-26-2; Chemical_Name: AKA218

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
0 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives Lakes - Batch Certified by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsUS. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2015. Color Additive Status. Appears as: listid: COLOR-120; Chemical_Name: D&C Red 27; ;

Data Sources

  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2015. Color Additive Status. Appears as: listid: COLOR-121; Chemical_Name: D&C Red 28; ;
  • Environment Canada 2015. Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). Appears as: listid: PBT-CANADA-477; Chemical_Name: BENZOIC ACID, 2,3,4,5TETRACHLORO6(2,4,5,7TETRABROMO6HYDROXY3OXO3HXANTHEN9YL); ; CAS: 2134-15-8
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-04548; Chemical_Name: Benzoic acid, 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-6-(2, 4,5,7-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl) -; ; CAS: 2134-15-8
  • Klaassen, C, M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website.
  • Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2012. Opinion on Acid Red 92.
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(1,4,5,8-tetrabromo-6-hydroxy-3-oxoxanthen-9-yl)benzoic acid; -; 2
  • National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2020. EWG Toxcast Analysis. Appears as: CAS: 13473-26-2; Chemical_Name: AKA218
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2015. Color Additive Status. Appears as: listid: COLOR-120; Chemical_Name: D&C Red 27; ;

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