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Data: Limited

Ci 45410 (D&C Red No. 27 Or 28) Lake

Other Concerns

Use restrictions (high), Endocrine disruption (low), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low)

SYNONYMS

2',4',5',7'-TETRABROMO-4,5,6,7-TETRACHLORO-3',6'-DIHYDROXYSPIRO[ISOBENZOFURAN-1(3H), 9'-[9H]XANTHEN]-3-ONE, 9'-[9H]XANTHEN]-3-ONE 2',4',5',7'-TETRABROMO-4,5,6,7-TETRACHLORO-3',6'-DIHYDROXYSPIRO[ISOBENZOFURAN-1(3H), CI 45410, CI 45410 (D&C RED NO. 27 OR 28) LAKE, D&C RED 27 AL LAKE, D&C RED 27 ALUMINUM LAKE, D&C RED 27 ALUMINUM/TITANIUM/ZIRCONIUM LAKE, D&C RED 27 BA LAKE, D&C RED 27 BARIUM LAKE, D&C RED 27 CA LAKE, D&C RED 27 CALCIUM LAKE, D&C RED 27 LAKE, D&C RED 27 ZR LAKE, D&C RED 28 AL LAKE, D&C RED 28 ALUMINUM LAKE, D&C RED 28 LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 AL LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 ALUMINUM LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 ALUMINUM/TITANIUM/ZIRCONIUM LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 BA LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 BARIUM LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 CA LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 CALCIUM LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 ZIRCONIUM LAKE, D&C RED NO. 27 ZR LAKE, D&C RED NO. 28 AL LAKE, D&C RED NO. 28 ALUMINUM LAKE, DC RED #27-TITANIUM/ALUMINUM/ZIRCONIUM LAKE, FD&C RED 27 ALUMINUM LAKE, RED 218, RED 27 LAKE, RED 28 LAKE, and RED NO. 218

Unacceptable

Unacceptable: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient


In industrial production of colorants, the term 'lake' is applied to pigments or dyes that are precipitated with metal salts such as aluminum, calcium, barium, or others. Most lake pigments are synthetically produced from coal tar or petroleum.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • LOW
    Cancer
  • LOW
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity
  • HIGH
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
lipstick1775 products
lip gloss558 products
blush272 products
lip balm251 products
lip liner179 products
eye shadow78 products
lip plumper44 products
bronzer/highlighter32 products
lip balm with SPF26 products
glitter23 products
foundation20 products
facial powder19 products
body oil18 products
bath oil/salts/soak12 products
setting powder/spray11 products
eye liner7 products
nail polish5 products
5 products
exfoliant/scrub3 products
mask3 products
hair color and bleaching2 products
concealer2 products
makeup primer1 products
makeup remover1 products
hair spray1 products
body wash/cleanser1 products
body spray1 products
oil controller1 products
BB cream1 products
body powder1 products

Use restrictions

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyesFDA Color Additive Status
Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - anyOpen scientific literature
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyFDA Color Additive Status

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humansOpen scientific literature
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeOpen scientific literature

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulOpen scientific literature
Limited evidence of any toxicityScorecard.org Toxicity Information
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited evidence of eye irritationOpen scientific literature
One or more animal studies show any irritation at high dosesOpen scientific literature

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
any - weight of evidence unknown/unassessedOpen scientific literature

Cancer

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Cancer - weight of evidence unknown/unassessedOpen scientific literature

Ecotoxicology

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulativeOpen scientific literature
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative (uncertainty in environmental toxicity or persistence/bioaccumulation)Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Wildlife and environmental toxicityOpen scientific literature
Suspected to be an environmental toxinOpen scientific literature
Uncertain environmental toxin and uncertain persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Associated with endocrine disruptionOpen scientific literature

Informational

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives Lakes - Batch Certified by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyOpen scientific literature
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status

Data gaps

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CONCERN REFERENCE
0 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

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