Other ConcernsUse restrictions (high), Endocrine disruption (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low)
SYNONYMSCI 45380 (D&C RED NO. 21 OR 22) LAKE, D&C RED 21 AL LAKE, D&C RED 21 ALUMINUM LAKE, D&C RED 21 LAKE, D&C RED 21 ZR LAKE, D&C RED 22 AL LAKE, D&C RED 22 ALUMINUM LAKE, D&C RED NO. 21 AL LAKE, D&C RED NO. 21 ALUMINUM LAKE, D&C RED NO. 21 ZIRCONIUM LAKE, D&C RED NO. 21 ZR LAKE, D&C RED NO. 22 AL LAKE, D&C RED NO. 22 ALUMINUM LAKE, DC RED #21-ALUMINUM BENZOATE LAKE, RED 21 ALUMINUM LAKE, RED 21 LAKE, RED 22 ALUMINUM LAKE, and RED 22 LAKE
Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation
In industrial production of colorants, the term 'lake' is applied to pigments or dyes that are precipitated with metal salts such as aluminum, calcium, barium, or others. Most lake pigments are synthetically produced from coal tar or petroleum.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||Open scientific literature|
|Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - any||Open scientific literature|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - any||FDA Color Additive Status|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Open scientific literature|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Limited evidence of any irritation||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity or allergies||Open scientific literature|
|One or more human case studies show equivocal any or allergenic effects||Open scientific literature|
|Associated with endocrine disruption||Open scientific literature|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative||Open scientific literature|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Open scientific literature|
|Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans||Open scientific literature|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Open scientific literature|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives Lakes - Batch Certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|0 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.