IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem
Other ConcernsUse restrictions (high), Endocrine disruption (low), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low)
Unacceptable: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient
D&C Red 21 is a synthetic dye produced from petroleum or coal tar sources; this dye is FDA-approved for use in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|nail polish||83 products|
|lip liner||66 products|
|eye liner||59 products|
|lip gloss||50 products|
|lip balm||39 products|
|body oil||18 products|
|hair color and bleaching||8 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||8 products|
|eye shadow||8 products|
|lip plumper||6 products|
|body powder||1 products|
|body wash/cleanser||1 products|
|nail glue||1 products|
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||Open scientific literature|
|Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyes||FDA Color Additive Status|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Limited evidence of any irritation||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity or allergies||Open scientific literature|
|One or more human case studies show equivocal any or allergenic effects||Open scientific literature|
|Associated with endocrine disruption||Open scientific literature|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans||Open scientific literature|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Batch Certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|1689 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.