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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Endocrine disruption (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation (high), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Ecotoxicology (low)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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foundation122 products
lipstick52 products
moisturizer31 products
eye liner30 products
daily use with SPF24 products
hair treatment/serum21 products
antiperspirant/deodorant20 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)19 products
facial moisturizer/treatment16 products
bronzer/highlighter16 products
brow liner11 products
makeup primer10 products
CC cream9 products
recreational sunscreen9 products
hair styling aide8 products
BB cream6 products
blush6 products
mascara5 products
conditioner5 products
eye shadow5 products
styling gel/lotion5 products
around-eye cream4 products
shampoo4 products
serums & essences4 products
nail treatment4 products
makeup remover3 products
hair spray3 products
body firming lotion3 products
mask3 products
styling mousse/foam3 products
hand cream2 products
damaged skin treatment2 products
baby sunscreen2 products
facial cleanser2 products
sunless tanning2 products
foot moisturizer2 products
concealer2 products
anti-aging1 products
toners/astringents1 products
skin fading/lightener1 products
exfoliant/scrub1 products
facial powder1 products
diaper cream1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Penetration enhancerOpen scientific literature

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansOpen scientific literature
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humansEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as a high human health priorityOpen scientific literature
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of any toxicityOpen scientific literature

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Human any disruptor - strong evidenceOpen scientific literature
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruptionOpen scientific literature
One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at moderate dosesOpen scientific literature

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of any toxicityOpen scientific literature
Limited evidence of any toxicityOpen scientific literature
One or more animal studies show any effects at moderate dosesOpen scientific literature


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Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulativeOpen scientific literature
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
103 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Data Sources

  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


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