Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|Known human carcinogen||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Known human carcinogen||EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)|
|Known human carcinogen||NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition|
|Possible human carcinogen||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens|
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||CosIng|
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - any||Open scientific literature|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Known human respiratory toxicant||EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants|
|Classified as a high human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Insufficient data to determine safety||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
|2749 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
- NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
- European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
- Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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