Menu Close Menu

Menu

CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS (ORANGE) OIL

Score:

Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
moisturizer49 products
facial moisturizer/treatment31 products
exfoliant/scrub29 products
lip balm28 products
body wash/cleanser26 products
shampoo24 products
facial cleanser24 products
bath oil/salts/soak22 products
bar soap20 products
serums & essences15 products
antiperspirant/deodorant12 products
lip gloss11 products
body oil11 products
mask10 products
conditioner10 products
foundation10 products
fragrance for women9 products
toners/astringents8 products
moisturizer with SPF8 products
beach & sport sunscreen8 products
toothpaste8 products
hair treatment/serum7 products
body spray7 products
shaving cream7 products
liquid hand soap7 products
hand sanitizer6 products
styling gel/lotion5 products
hand cream5 products
baby soap4 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)4 products
beard oil3 products
fragrance for men3 products
hair spray3 products
makeup primer2 products
hair styling aide2 products
anti-aging2 products
baby oil2 products
makeup remover2 products
foot cleansing2 products
body firming lotion2 products
foot moisturizer2 products
bubble bath2 products
baby shampoo2 products
cuticle treatment2 products
baby lotion2 products
detangler2 products
body powder1 products
vapor rubs1 products
diaper cream1 products
baby bubble bath1 products
lipstick1 products
eye makeup remover1 products
facial powder1 products
mouthwash1 products
baby powder1 products
after shave1 products
foot odor control1 products
nail treatment1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Known human skin toxicant or allergenOpinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
Fragrance chemical, which is less frequently reported and thus less documented as a consumer allergen.European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
Human any toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceSafer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
May cause sensitization by skin contactEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
May cause sensitization by skin contact, with allergic reaction in skin or lungsUS. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
REACH registrations this substance may cause an allergic skin reaction. European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sweet, ext.; (2E,6E)-2,6-dimethyl-10-methylidenedodeca-2,6,11-trienal; (2E,6E,9E)-2,6,10-trimethyldodeca-2,6,9,11-tetraenal; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol; 7-methyl-3-methylideneocta-1,6-diene; ; cas_numbers: 8028-48-6, 68647-72-3

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Irritating to skinEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
Industry restrictions due to photoirritation.International Fragrance Association (IFRA) 2015. IFRA Codes & Standards. Appears as: listid: IFRA-029-01; Chemical_Name: Bitter Orange Peel Oil Expressed; Synonyms: Orange Peel Oil, Bitter (Citrus aurantium L. subsp amara L.)Bitter orange oil (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. amara L.)Citrus aurantium peel oil Curacao peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.) Daidai peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.); CAS: 72968-50-4; Classification: Restricted
REACH registrations this substance causes skin irritation.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sweet, ext.; (2E,6E)-2,6-dimethyl-10-methylidenedodeca-2,6,11-trienal; (2E,6E,9E)-2,6,10-trimethyldodeca-2,6,9,11-tetraenal; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol; 7-methyl-3-methylideneocta-1,6-diene; ; cas_numbers: 8028-48-6, 68647-72-3

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concernOSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
REACH registrations this substance may be fatal if swallowed and enters airways.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sweet, ext.; (2E,6E)-2,6-dimethyl-10-methylidenedodeca-2,6,11-trienal; (2E,6E,9E)-2,6,10-trimethyldodeca-2,6,9,11-tetraenal; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol; 7-methyl-3-methylideneocta-1,6-diene; ; cas_numbers: 8028-48-6, 68647-72-3
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Dangerous for the environmentEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
REACH registrations this substance is toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sweet, ext.; (2E,6E)-2,6-dimethyl-10-methylidenedodeca-2,6,11-trienal; (2E,6E,9E)-2,6,10-trimethyldodeca-2,6,9,11-tetraenal; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol; 7-methyl-3-methylideneocta-1,6-diene; ; cas_numbers: 8028-48-6, 68647-72-3

Data gaps

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Insufficient data to support safe use in cosmeticsCosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) 2017. CIR Assessments. Appears as: ; Chemical_Name: Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Oil; ; ; Classification: QQQ03;
171 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Miscellaneous

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
FlammableEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5

Cancer

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Use restrictions

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensEU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Data Sources

  • Opinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
  • European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
  • Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • US. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sweet, ext.; (2E,6E)-2,6-dimethyl-10-methylidenedodeca-2,6,11-trienal; (2E,6E,9E)-2,6,10-trimethyldodeca-2,6,9,11-tetraenal; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol; 7-methyl-3-methylideneocta-1,6-diene; ; cas_numbers: 8028-48-6, 68647-72-3
  • International Fragrance Association (IFRA) 2015. IFRA Codes & Standards. Appears as: listid: IFRA-029-01; Chemical_Name: Bitter Orange Peel Oil Expressed; Synonyms: Orange Peel Oil, Bitter (Citrus aurantium L. subsp amara L.)Bitter orange oil (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. amara L.)Citrus aurantium peel oil Curacao peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.) Daidai peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.); CAS: 72968-50-4; Classification: Restricted
  • OSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • 1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.
  • Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) 2017. CIR Assessments. Appears as: ; Chemical_Name: Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Oil; ; ; Classification: QQQ03;
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • EU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer