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Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption and Use restrictions (moderate)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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beach & sport sunscreen87 products
moisturizer with SPF80 products
facial moisturizer/treatment52 products
serums & essences32 products
moisturizer27 products
mask25 products
eye liner22 products
around-eye cream18 products
shampoo14 products
facial cleanser14 products
baby sunscreen12 products
antiperspirant/deodorant9 products
anti-aging9 products
shaving cream9 products
body firming lotion9 products
lip balm with SPF7 products
conditioner7 products
after shave7 products
lip gloss6 products
body wash/cleanser6 products
eye shadow6 products
BB cream6 products
body oil5 products
exfoliant/scrub4 products
liquid hand soap4 products
mascara4 products
lip balm4 products
foundation4 products
CC cream4 products
diaper cream3 products
baby lotion3 products
hair treatment/serum3 products
hand cream3 products
shaving cream (men's)2 products
detangler2 products
hair styling aide2 products
damaged skin treatment2 products
body spray2 products
eye makeup remover1 products
baby wipes1 products
makeup with SPF1 products
toothpaste1 products
baby soap1 products
tanning oil1 products
lipstick1 products
makeup primer1 products
foot cleansing1 products
oil controller1 products
foot moisturizer1 products
toners/astringents1 products
baby shampoo1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Penetration enhancerIJT 18(S3):33-40, 1999

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only within recommended use or concentration limitsn)IFRA 1/2020

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productIJT 18(S3):33-40, 1999
216 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed


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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyIJT 18(S3):33-40, 1999

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • IJT 18(S3):33-40, 1999
  • IFRA 1/2020
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer