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BHT

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Endocrine disruption (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW_MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick168 products
eye liner120 products
concealer103 products
foundation103 products
lip gloss80 products
moisturizer with SPF65 products
body wash/cleanser56 products
antiperspirant/deodorant52 products
beach & sport sunscreen51 products
serums & essences48 products
mascara46 products
lip liner40 products
brow liner39 products
eye shadow38 products
moisturizer37 products
facial moisturizer/treatment37 products
bronzer/highlighter36 products
fragrance for women33 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)32 products
lip balm with SPF28 products
fragrance for men25 products
makeup primer25 products
facial cleanser22 products
hair treatment/serum19 products
lip balm19 products
facial powder17 products
conditioner15 products
blush13 products
shampoo11 products
liquid hand soap11 products
hair color and bleaching11 products
exfoliant/scrub9 products
shaving cream (men's)8 products
shaving cream7 products
body spray7 products
CC cream6 products
mask6 products
body oil5 products
around-eye cream5 products
body firming lotion5 products
hand cream5 products
styling gel/lotion4 products
makeup remover4 products
sunless tanning3 products
bubble bath3 products
makeup with SPF3 products
baby sunscreen3 products
anti-aging3 products
after shave3 products
other eye makeup3 products
hair-loss treatment3 products
foot moisturizer2 products
bath oil/salts/soak2 products
hair styling aide2 products
lip plumper1 products
nail treatment1 products
toners/astringents1 products
detangler1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
beard care1 products
foot odor control1 products
hair spray1 products
depilatory1 products
cuticle treatment1 products
polish remover1 products
BB cream1 products
beard oil1 products

Cancer

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Concern Reference
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause liver cancer in animals.European Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
This peer-reviewed study reports this substance is a tumor promoter.Vikism, Haris G, Alexander S. Krupnick, Jay W. Tichelaar, Pengyuan Liu, Jihong Zhu, Amy Rymaszewski, Lauren Stein, Andrew Franklin, Andrew E. Gelman & Ming You. 2011. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Molecular carcinogenesis.
This peer-reviewed study reports this substance is a tumor promoter.Shearn, Colin T, Kristofer S. Fritz & John A. Thompson. 2011. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene. Chemico-biological interactions 192(3), 278-86.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
One or more human case studies show significant any or allergenic effectsNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Upper respiratory tract irritationAmerican Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) 2010. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances.

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause allergies in people.European Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
A peer-reviewed study found this substance caused adverse developmental effects in rats.Vorhees, C, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productIJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002
5406 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyIJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002

Data Sources

  • European Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
  • Vikism, Haris G, Alexander S. Krupnick, Jay W. Tichelaar, Pengyuan Liu, Jihong Zhu, Amy Rymaszewski, Lauren Stein, Andrew Franklin, Andrew E. Gelman & Ming You. 2011. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Molecular carcinogenesis.
  • Shearn, Colin T, Kristofer S. Fritz & John A. Thompson. 2011. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene. Chemico-biological interactions 192(3), 278-86.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) 2010. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Vorhees, C, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.
  • IJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

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