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BHT

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Endocrine disruption (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW_MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick453 products
foundation321 products
lip gloss277 products
eye liner208 products
antiperspirant/deodorant164 products
concealer137 products
eye shadow133 products
moisturizer113 products
body wash/cleanser110 products
mascara107 products
fragrance for women98 products
facial moisturizer/treatment96 products
daily use with SPF96 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)81 products
recreational sunscreen77 products
fragrance for men71 products
hair treatment/serum67 products
bronzer/highlighter65 products
lip balm65 products
brow liner63 products
conditioner58 products
facial powder56 products
lip liner52 products
shampoo46 products
lip balm with SPF43 products
blush40 products
body firming lotion40 products
hair styling aide40 products
facial cleanser37 products
serums & essences36 products
body spray34 products
shaving cream33 products
body oil30 products
makeup primer30 products
hair spray29 products
anti-aging24 products
mask23 products
hand cream22 products
exfoliant/scrub22 products
sunless tanning22 products
liquid hand soap21 products
lip plumper19 products
around-eye cream17 products
toothpaste15 products
14 products
shaving cream (men's)13 products
after shave12 products
styling gel/lotion12 products
BB cream12 products
setting powder/spray12 products
hair-loss treatment11 products
nail glue11 products
bar soap10 products
makeup remover8 products
hair color and bleaching8 products
bath oil/salts/soak7 products
baby sunscreen7 products
CC cream6 products
bubble bath5 products
foot moisturizer4 products
toners/astringents4 products
other eye makeup4 products
polish remover4 products
hand sanitizer4 products
skin fading/lightener3 products
nail polish3 products
styling mousse/foam3 products
baby shampoo3 products
depilatory2 products
cuticle treatment2 products
detangler2 products
hair removal waxes2 products
baby soap2 products
beard oil2 products
foot odor control1 products
baby lotion1 products
tanning oil1 products
nail treatment1 products
oil controller1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
glitter1 products
beard cleanser1 products

Cancer

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Concern Reference
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause liver cancer in animals.European Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
This peer-reviewed study reports this substance is a tumor promoter.Vikism, Haris G, Alexander S. Krupnick, Jay W. Tichelaar, Pengyuan Liu, Jihong Zhu, Amy Rymaszewski, Lauren Stein, Andrew Franklin, Andrew E. Gelman & Ming You. 2011. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Molecular carcinogenesis.
This peer-reviewed study reports this substance is a tumor promoter.Shearn, Colin T, Kristofer S. Fritz & John A. Thompson. 2011. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene. Chemico-biological interactions 192(3), 278-86.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
One or more human case studies show significant any or allergenic effectsNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Upper respiratory tract irritationAmerican Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) 2010. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances.

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause allergies in people.European Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
A peer-reviewed study found this substance caused adverse developmental effects in rats.Vorhees, C, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productIJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002
5406 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyIJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002

Data Sources

  • European Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
  • Vikism, Haris G, Alexander S. Krupnick, Jay W. Tichelaar, Pengyuan Liu, Jihong Zhu, Amy Rymaszewski, Lauren Stein, Andrew Franklin, Andrew E. Gelman & Ming You. 2011. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Molecular carcinogenesis.
  • Shearn, Colin T, Kristofer S. Fritz & John A. Thompson. 2011. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene. Chemico-biological interactions 192(3), 278-86.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) 2010. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Vorhees, C, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.
  • IJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

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