Menu Close Menu

Menu

BHT

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Endocrine disruption (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW_MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
eye liner104 products
lipstick101 products
concealer100 products
moisturizer with SPF68 products
beach & sport sunscreen63 products
foundation57 products
lip gloss47 products
serums & essences37 products
lip balm with SPF28 products
brow liner28 products
mascara28 products
eye shadow26 products
bronzer/highlighter24 products
facial moisturizer/treatment19 products
fragrance for women19 products
lip liner18 products
makeup primer15 products
facial powder14 products
facial cleanser13 products
blush13 products
moisturizer10 products
body wash/cleanser10 products
fragrance for men8 products
BB cream8 products
lip balm8 products
CC cream6 products
antiperspirant/deodorant6 products
around-eye cream5 products
exfoliant/scrub5 products
makeup remover4 products
hair treatment/serum4 products
baby sunscreen4 products
shampoo3 products
mask3 products
conditioner3 products
other eye makeup3 products
styling gel/lotion2 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)2 products
liquid hand soap2 products
tanning oil1 products
shaving cream1 products
body oil1 products
bath oil/salts/soak1 products
toners/astringents1 products
hair color and bleaching1 products
beard oil1 products
after shave1 products

Cancer

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityEuropean Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsVikism, Haris G, Alexander S. Krupnick, Jay W. Tichelaar, Pengyuan Liu, Jihong Zhu, Amy Rymaszewski, Lauren Stein, Andrew Franklin, Andrew E. Gelman & Ming You. 2011. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Molecular carcinogenesis.
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high dosesShearn, Colin T, Kristofer S. Fritz & John A. Thompson. 2011. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene. Chemico-biological interactions 192(3), 278-86.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
One or more human case studies show significant any or allergenic effectsNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Human respiratory irritant - moderate evidenceAmerican Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) 2010. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances.

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
One or more studies show weak endocrine disruptionEuropean Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show developemental effects at high dosesVorhees, C, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.

Data gaps

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productIJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002
5406 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyIJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002

Data Sources

  • European Food Safety Authority 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
  • Vikism, Haris G, Alexander S. Krupnick, Jay W. Tichelaar, Pengyuan Liu, Jihong Zhu, Amy Rymaszewski, Lauren Stein, Andrew Franklin, Andrew E. Gelman & Ming You. 2011. Neutrophils are required for 3-methylcholanthrene-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene-promoted lung carcinogenesis. Molecular carcinogenesis.
  • Shearn, Colin T, Kristofer S. Fritz & John A. Thompson. 2011. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene. Chemico-biological interactions 192(3), 278-86.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) 2010. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Vorhees, C, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.
  • IJT 21(S2):19-94, 2002
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer