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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Occupational hazards (high)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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conditioner609 products
shampoo468 products
moisturizer323 products
lipstick281 products
hair treatment/serum280 products
body wash/cleanser261 products
facial moisturizer/treatment206 products
mask167 products
liquid hand soap152 products
fragrance for women138 products
foundation131 products
hair styling aide122 products
facial cleanser110 products
lip gloss109 products
mascara107 products
recreational sunscreen98 products
exfoliant/scrub97 products
serums & essences88 products
hair color and bleaching80 products
styling gel/lotion72 products
hand cream66 products
hair spray56 products
antiperspirant/deodorant53 products
daily use with SPF53 products
around-eye cream50 products
eye shadow50 products
fragrance for men47 products
lip balm39 products
makeup remover38 products
body firming lotion36 products
toners/astringents31 products
bronzer/highlighter31 products
toothpaste30 products
baby lotion29 products
bubble bath29 products
body spray29 products
makeup primer28 products
bar soap27 products
lip balm with SPF27 products
after sun product26 products
sunless tanning26 products
setting powder/spray25 products
detangler24 products
facial powder22 products
styling mousse/foam21 products
anti-aging19 products
eye liner18 products
shaving cream17 products
concealer16 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)16 products
mouthwash15 products
body oil13 products
eye makeup remover12 products
hand sanitizer12 products
baby sunscreen11 products
11 products
after shave9 products
lip plumper9 products
baby soap9 products
BB cream9 products
baby shampoo9 products
bath oil/salts/soak8 products
hair-loss treatment8 products
baby toothpaste7 products
shaving cream (men's)6 products
baby wipes5 products
lip liner5 products
CC cream5 products
foot moisturizer4 products
nail treatment4 products
skin fading/lightener3 products
baby oil3 products
baby bubble bath3 products
beard cleanser3 products
beard care3 products
tanning oil2 products
nail polish2 products
body powder2 products
blush2 products
cuticle treatment1 products
diaper cream1 products
muscle/joint soreness1 products
other eye makeup1 products
foot cleansing1 products
glitter1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
beard oil1 products


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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpen scientific literature
Human any toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceOpen scientific literature
One or more human case studies show possible allergenic or allergenic effectsEWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
Associated with immunotoxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only within recommended use or concentration limitsn)International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensCosIng

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityOpen scientific literature
Classified as toxic or harmfulCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling


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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityOpen scientific literature
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinOpen scientific literature

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
5667 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentOpen scientific literature
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeOpen scientific literature

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data Sources

  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • IFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at .
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for use around mouth due to increased risk of ingestion and absorption.
  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for use on lips due to increased risk of ingestion and absorption.
  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer