Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidence||European Commission on Endocrine Disruption|
|One or more studies show significant wildlife and the environment disruption||European Commission on Endocrine Disruption|
|One or more animal studies show any disruption at high doses||Schlumpf M, Schmid P, Durrer S, Conscience M, Maerkel K, Henseler M, et al 2004. Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters--an update. Toxicology 205(1-2): 113-122.|
|Associated with endocrine disruption||Kunz PY, Fent K 2006. Estrogenic activity of UV filter mixtures. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 217(1): 86-99.|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||JACT 2(5):35-77, 1983 confirmed 09/02 IJT 24(S1):10-18, 2005|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||JACT 2(5):35-77, 1983 confirmed 09/02 IJT 24(S1):10-18, 2005|
|122 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||JACT 2(5):35-77, 1983 confirmed 09/02 IJT 24(S1):10-18, 2005|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
- Schlumpf M, Schmid P, Durrer S, Conscience M, Maerkel K, Henseler M, et al 2004. Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters--an update. Toxicology 205(1-2): 113-122.
- Kunz PY, Fent K 2006. Estrogenic activity of UV filter mixtures. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 217(1): 86-99.
- JACT 2(5):35-77, 1983 confirmed 09/02 IJT 24(S1):10-18, 2005
- EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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