Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|facial moisturizer/treatment||35 products|
|facial cleanser||26 products|
|makeup remover||23 products|
|body wash/cleanser||19 products|
|serums & essences||17 products|
|beach & sport sunscreen||16 products|
|hand cream||14 products|
|hair treatment/serum||14 products|
|around-eye cream||14 products|
|moisturizer with SPF||14 products|
|brow liner||10 products|
|body firming lotion||8 products|
|eye shadow||6 products|
|styling gel/lotion||6 products|
|lip gloss||6 products|
|lip liner||5 products|
|baby shampoo||4 products|
|baby wipes||4 products|
|after shave||3 products|
|baby lotion||3 products|
|baby soap||3 products|
|eye makeup remover||3 products|
|beard care||2 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||2 products|
|liquid hand soap||2 products|
|hair spray||2 products|
|makeup primer||2 products|
|eye liner||2 products|
|hair color and bleaching||2 products|
|sunless tanning||2 products|
|hair styling aide||2 products|
|skin fading/lightener||1 products|
|lip balm with SPF||1 products|
|body oil||1 products|
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||1 products|
|tooth whitening||1 products|
|lip plumper||1 products|
|after sun product||1 products|
|baby bubble bath||1 products|
|other eye makeup||1 products|
|beard oil||1 products|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in cosmetics (concentration limit)||Japan's Standards for Cosmetics|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications||IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity||Harvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H 1994. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10|
|Insufficient data to determine safety||EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.|
|16719 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.|
|Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans||author communication|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||IJT 36(Suppl 3):5-30, 2017; original IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
- IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10
- Harvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H 1994. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- author communication
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- IJT 36(Suppl 3):5-30, 2017; original IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001
- Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer