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BENZOIC ACID

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate) and Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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shampoo129 products
foundation111 products
conditioner107 products
mouthwash98 products
concealer77 products
lipstick77 products
facial cleanser75 products
facial moisturizer/treatment70 products
moisturizer59 products
hair treatment/serum51 products
makeup remover49 products
body wash/cleanser49 products
hand cream36 products
hair styling aide36 products
toners/astringents35 products
serums & essences35 products
mask34 products
body firming lotion33 products
lip gloss30 products
exfoliant/scrub30 products
styling gel/lotion28 products
toothpaste23 products
recreational sunscreen23 products
mascara22 products
liquid hand soap20 products
daily use with SPF20 products
eye shadow16 products
antiperspirant/deodorant13 products
sunless tanning11 products
detangler11 products
eye makeup remover10 products
baby wipes10 products
around-eye cream9 products
baby shampoo9 products
body spray9 products
styling mousse/foam8 products
brow liner8 products
after shave7 products
baby lotion7 products
hair spray7 products
eye liner7 products
lip plumper7 products
makeup primer7 products
bronzer/highlighter6 products
blush6 products
foot moisturizer5 products
lip balm5 products
facial powder5 products
5 products
setting powder/spray5 products
beard cleanser5 products
hair color and bleaching4 products
fragrance for women4 products
baby soap4 products
lip balm with SPF3 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)3 products
shaving cream3 products
after sun product3 products
beard care3 products
anti-aging2 products
bath oil/salts/soak2 products
bar soap2 products
foot odor control2 products
lip liner2 products
body oil2 products
baby bubble bath2 products
diaper cream1 products
tooth whitening1 products
nail treatment1 products
shaving cream (men's)1 products
hair-loss treatment1 products
oil controller1 products
skin fading/lightener1 products
other eye makeup1 products
bubble bath1 products
fragrance for men1 products
baby sunscreen1 products
tanning oil1 products
baby oil1 products
beard oil1 products
muscle/joint soreness1 products
nail polish1 products

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in cosmetics (concentration limit)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsIJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityHarvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H 1994. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productIJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10
Insufficient data to determine safetyEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
16719 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
Not likely to be carcinogenic in humansauthor communication

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyIJT 36(Suppl 3):5-30, 2017; original IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
  • IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10
  • Harvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H 1994. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • author communication
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • IJT 36(Suppl 3):5-30, 2017; original IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

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Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer