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BENZOIC ACID

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate) and Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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foundation84 products
shampoo63 products
concealer51 products
facial moisturizer/treatment36 products
conditioner32 products
mouthwash30 products
facial cleanser28 products
moisturizer26 products
makeup remover25 products
mask22 products
body wash/cleanser21 products
serums & essences17 products
beach & sport sunscreen16 products
around-eye cream14 products
moisturizer with SPF14 products
hand cream14 products
hair treatment/serum14 products
toners/astringents12 products
mascara12 products
brow liner10 products
toothpaste9 products
exfoliant/scrub8 products
blush8 products
body firming lotion8 products
eye shadow6 products
styling gel/lotion6 products
lip gloss6 products
lip liner5 products
baby shampoo4 products
baby wipes4 products
beard cleanser4 products
eye makeup remover4 products
bronzer/highlighter3 products
after shave3 products
lipstick3 products
baby lotion3 products
baby soap3 products
hair color and bleaching2 products
sunless tanning2 products
hair styling aide2 products
bath oil/salts/soak2 products
liquid hand soap2 products
hair spray2 products
makeup primer2 products
eye liner2 products
beard care2 products
anti-aging1 products
tooth whitening1 products
lip plumper1 products
after sun product1 products
baby bubble bath1 products
other eye makeup1 products
beard oil1 products
skin fading/lightener1 products
lip balm with SPF1 products
body oil1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)1 products
detangler1 products

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Japan - restricted for use in cosmetics (concentration limit)Japan's Standards for Cosmetics
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsIJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicityHarvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H 1994. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productIJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10
Insufficient data to determine safetyEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
16719 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
Not likely to be carcinogenic in humansauthor communication

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyIJT 36(Suppl 3):5-30, 2017; original IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
  • IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001 reopened 06/10
  • Harvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H 1994. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • author communication
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • IJT 36(Suppl 3):5-30, 2017; original IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

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Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer