Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|hair color and bleaching||4 products|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as irritant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Violation of industry recommendations - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Safe for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsing||IJT 20(S3):7-21, 2001|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications||IJT 20(S3):7-21, 2001|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||IJT 20(S3):7-21, 2001|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature|
|Generally recognized as an asthmagen.||AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics) 2012. Asthmagen compilation - AEOC exposures codes.|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as toxic or harmful||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity||Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Insufficient data to determine safety||IJT 20(S3):7-21, 2001;Final report 12/2017 available from CIR|
|Unknown safety for non-permanent hair dyes||IJT 20(S3):7-21, 2001;Final report 12/2017 available from CIR|
|364 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Safe for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsing||IJT 20(S3):7-21, 2001|
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- IJT 20(S3):7-21, 2001
- EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics) 2012. Asthmagen compilation - AEOC exposures codes.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- Harvell, J, M. Bason and H. Maibach. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. 1994. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
- IJT 20(S3):7-21, 2001;Final report 12/2017 available from CIR
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that will not be immediately rinsed off due to increased risk of absorption.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for use around mouth due to increased risk of ingestion and absorption.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products intended for use on lips due to increased risk of ingestion and absorption.
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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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