- †This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
- †Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.
Other ConcernsUse restrictions (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low), and Occupational hazards (high)
SYNONYMSAMMONIA, AMMONIA (NH3-N), AMMONIA NITROGEN UNIONIZED (AS N), AMMONIA, ANHYDROUS, AMMONIA, UNIONIZED, NH3-N, UNIONIZED AMMONIA, and UNIONIZED AMMONIA AS N
Ammonia is an inorganic gas. (See also Ammonium Hydroxide).
See how this product scores for common concerns.
MODERATEAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reingredientive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Single case study detailing occupational hazards||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - any||CosIng|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications||Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|One or more animal studies show toxic via inhalation effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Limited evidence of skin irritation||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|42597 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
- CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.