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ALUMINA

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), and Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick266 products
nail polish126 products
concealer81 products
foundation79 products
lip gloss65 products
moisturizer with SPF61 products
beach & sport sunscreen52 products
lip balm44 products
bronzer/highlighter40 products
blush32 products
eye liner27 products
lip liner24 products
eye shadow23 products
BB cream18 products
CC cream14 products
lip balm with SPF12 products
baby sunscreen8 products
facial powder6 products
makeup primer6 products
other eye makeup5 products
mascara4 products
nail treatment4 products
facial moisturizer/treatment3 products
around-eye cream3 products
makeup with SPF1 products
bar soap1 products
exfoliant/scrub1 products
moisturizer1 products
lip plumper1 products
serums & essences1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humansEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of any toxicityKlaassen, C, M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Cancer

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Concern Reference
This study found a relationship between use of antiperspirant product use, breast cancer risk, and aluminum concentration in breast tissue in women.Caroline Linhart, Nicole Concin, Michael Hubalek, Daniel Egle, Susanne Taucher, Herbert H Lindner, Christopher Exley, Evi M. Morandi, Heribert Talasz & Hanno Ulmer. 2017. Use of Underarm Cosmetic Products in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study. EBioMedicine 21, 79-85.
This study found that treating mouse mammary cells with aluminum chloride, at concentrations observed in human breast tissue, formed large metastatic tumors when implanted back into mice.Stefano J Mandriota, Mirna Tenan, Paolo Ferrari & André-Pascal Sappino. 2016. Aluminium chloride promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells. International journal of cancer 139(12), 2781-2790.
This small (n = 54) epidemiological study found no link between breast cancer and antiperspirant use in women.Dana K Mirick, Scott Davis & David B. Thomas. 2002. Antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94(20), 1578-80.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
26589 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyFinal report 12/2013 available from CIR

Data Sources

  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Klaassen, C, M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • Caroline Linhart, Nicole Concin, Michael Hubalek, Daniel Egle, Susanne Taucher, Herbert H Lindner, Christopher Exley, Evi M. Morandi, Heribert Talasz & Hanno Ulmer. 2017. Use of Underarm Cosmetic Products in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study. EBioMedicine 21, 79-85.
  • Stefano J Mandriota, Mirna Tenan, Paolo Ferrari & André-Pascal Sappino. 2016. Aluminium chloride promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells. International journal of cancer 139(12), 2781-2790.
  • Dana K Mirick, Scott Davis & David B. Thomas. 2002. Antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94(20), 1578-80.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • Final report 12/2013 available from CIR

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