Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|moisturizer with SPF||87 products|
|nail polish||70 products|
|beach & sport sunscreen||60 products|
|lip gloss||46 products|
|lip balm||28 products|
|eye shadow||22 products|
|eye liner||21 products|
|BB cream||20 products|
|lip liner||17 products|
|CC cream||15 products|
|baby sunscreen||7 products|
|other eye makeup||5 products|
|around-eye cream||4 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||4 products|
|makeup primer||3 products|
|facial powder||2 products|
|lip balm with SPF||1 products|
|lip plumper||1 products|
|serums & essences||1 products|
|makeup with SPF||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin||Nanomaterial Database|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity||Klaassen, C, M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Cancer - limited evidence||Caroline Linhart, Nicole Concin, Michael Hubalek, Daniel Egle, Susanne Taucher, Herbert H Lindner, Christopher Exley, Evi M. Morandi, Heribert Talasz & Hanno Ulmer. 2017. Use of Underarm Cosmetic Products in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study. EBioMedicine 21, 79-85.|
|One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses||Stefano J Mandriota, Mirna Tenan, Paolo Ferrari & André-Pascal Sappino. 2016. Aluminium chloride promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells. International journal of cancer 139(12), 2781-2790.|
|Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans||Dana K Mirick, Scott Davis & David B. Thomas. 2002. Antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94(20), 1578-80.|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|26589 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Final report 12/2013 available from CIR|
- NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- Klaassen, C, M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- Caroline Linhart, Nicole Concin, Michael Hubalek, Daniel Egle, Susanne Taucher, Herbert H Lindner, Christopher Exley, Evi M. Morandi, Heribert Talasz & Hanno Ulmer. 2017. Use of Underarm Cosmetic Products in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study. EBioMedicine 21, 79-85.
- Stefano J Mandriota, Mirna Tenan, Paolo Ferrari & André-Pascal Sappino. 2016. Aluminium chloride promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells. International journal of cancer 139(12), 2781-2790.
- Dana K Mirick, Scott Davis & David B. Thomas. 2002. Antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94(20), 1578-80.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- Final report 12/2013 available from CIR
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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