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4-METHYLBENZYLIDENE CAMPHOR

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Endocrine disruption (moderate), and Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
About 2% of the dose was absorbed in 6 volunteers through dermal penetrationSCCP (2006) "Opinion concerning 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor ". European Commission - The Scientfic Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. SCCP/1042/06 Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/sccp_opinions_en.htm.

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
The SCCP is of the opinion that presently the safe use of a maximum concentration of 4% 4-MBC in sunscreens cannot be established.SCCP (2006) "Opinion concerning 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor ". European Commission - The Scientfic Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. SCCP/1042/06 Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/sccp_opinions_en.htm.

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidenceEuropean Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Increased VTG plasma concentration in male medaka{Inui, 2003}
4-MBC delays male puberty and alters hormone receptor expression in the prostate of rats.Durrer S, Ehnes C, Fuetsch M et al "Estrogen sensitivity of target genes and expression of nuclear receptor co-regulators in rat prostate after pre- and postnatal exposure to the ultraviolet filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor." Environ Health Perspect 2007; 115 Suppl 1:42-50.

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeOSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeEmerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
Ingredient is suspected or measured to accumulate in peopleSchlumpf M, Kypke K, Vökt C, Birchler M, Durrer S, Faass O, et al 2008. Endocrine Active UV Filters: Developmental Toxicity and Exposure Through Breast Milk. Chimia 62: 1-7.
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
4-MBC affects development of male reproductive functions and organs, with a lowest observed adverse effect level of 0.7 mg/kg.Durrer S, Ehnes C, Fuetsch M et al "Estrogen sensitivity of target genes and expression of nuclear receptor co-regulators in rat prostate after pre- and postnatal exposure to the ultraviolet filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor." Environ Health Perspect 2007; 115 Suppl 1:42-50.
A rat study reveals impaired reproductive development in males and females, with a lowest observed adverse effect level of 7 mg/kg.Schlumpf M, Durrer S, Faass O et al "Developmental toxicity of UV filters and environmental exposure: a review." Int J Androl 2008; 31 (2):144-51.
There was some retardation of ossification in foetuses of the intermediate and high dose groups.; NOAEL for developmental effects in rats at 10 mg/kg/day{SCCPNFP, 04; Gleich, 1988}

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
4773 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • SCCP (2006) "Opinion concerning 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor ". European Commission - The Scientfic Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. SCCP/1042/06 Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/sccp_opinions_en.htm.
  • EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
  • {Inui, 2003}
  • Durrer S, Ehnes C, Fuetsch M et al "Estrogen sensitivity of target genes and expression of nuclear receptor co-regulators in rat prostate after pre- and postnatal exposure to the ultraviolet filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor." Environ Health Perspect 2007; 115 Suppl 1:42-50.
  • OSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
  • Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
  • Schlumpf M, Kypke K, Vökt C, Birchler M, Durrer S, Faass O, et al 2008. Endocrine Active UV Filters: Developmental Toxicity and Exposure Through Breast Milk. Chimia 62: 1-7.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Schlumpf M, Durrer S, Faass O et al "Developmental toxicity of UV filters and environmental exposure: a review." Int J Androl 2008; 31 (2):144-51.
  • {SCCPNFP, 04; Gleich, 1988}
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

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