2-BROMO-2-NITROPROPANE-1,3-DIOL (FORMALDEHYDE RELEASER)
Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|Known human skin toxicant or allergen||Formaldehyde - Global Harmonized System (GHS)|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature|
|Human any toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||De Groot AC 2010. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis, 62: 2â€“17.|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as lung and skin irritant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Known human lung and skin toxicant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity||US EPA Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Cancer - limited evidence||IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99.|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications||JACT 3(3):139-55, 1984 (Addendum) JEPT 4(4):47-61, 1980 (Original report) confirmed 09/03 IJT 25(S2), 2006|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product||JACT 3(3):139-55, 1984 (Addendum) JEPT 4(4):47-61, 1980 (Original report) confirmed 09/03 IJT 25(S2), 2006|
|165 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- Formaldehyde - Global Harmonized System (GHS)
- EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
- De Groot AC 2010. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis, 62: 2â€“17.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- US EPA Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99.
- JACT 3(3):139-55, 1984 (Addendum) JEPT 4(4):47-61, 1980 (Original report) confirmed 09/03 IJT 25(S2), 2006
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
- Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met the program’s impurity and use restrictions based on EWG's review of the company's data.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer