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Data: Fair

2 Bromo 2 Nitropropane 1,3 Diol (Formaldehyde Releaser)

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.

IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem

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Other Concerns

Use restrictions (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (high), Ecotoxicology (low), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high), Occupational hazards (high), and Contamination concerns (high)

SYNONYMS

1,3-PROPANEDIOL, 2-BROMO-2-NITRO-, 1,3PROPANEDIOL, 2BROMO2NITRO, 2-BROMO-2-NITRO- 1,3-PROPANEDIOL, 2-BROMO-2-NITROPROPANE-1,3-DIOL, 2-BROMO-2-NITROPROPANE-1,3-DIOL (FORMALDEHYDE RELEASER), and BRONOPOL

2-Bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol is an antimicrobial preservative that works by forming formaldehyde in cosmetic products. People exposed to such formaldehyde-releasing ingredients may develop a formaldehyde allergy or an allergy to the ingredient itself. In the U.S. approximately 20% of cosmetics and personal care products contain a formaldehyde-releaser and the frequency of contact allergy to these ingredients is much higher among Americans compared to studies in Europe.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • LOW
    Cancer
  • HIGH
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reingredientive Toxicity
  • LOW
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
liquid hand soap11 products
baby wipes8 products
makeup remover6 products
mask4 products
hand sanitizer4 products
moisturizer3 products
facial moisturizer/treatment2 products
facial cleanser2 products
conditioner2 products
serums & essences2 products
sunless tanning2 products
anti-aging2 products
antiperspirant/deodorant2 products
around-eye cream1 products
hair styling aide1 products
hand cream1 products
body wash/cleanser1 products

Contamination concerns

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Allergies/immunotoxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Known human skin toxicant or allergenOpen scientific literature
Human any toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceOpen scientific literature
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceEWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Known human lung and skin toxicantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicityScorecard.org Toxicity Information
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Classified as lung and skin irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Occupational hazards

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Cancer - limited evidenceOpen scientific literature

Use restrictions

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Ecotoxicology

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
165 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

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