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2-BROMO-2-NITROPROPANE-1,3-DIOL (FORMALDEHYDE RELEASER)

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (low), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low), Ecotoxicology (low), Occupational hazards (high), and Contamination concerns (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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body wash/cleanser2 products

Contamination concerns

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Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human skin toxicant or allergenFormaldehyde - Global Harmonized System (GHS)
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceEWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
Human any toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceDe Groot AC 2010. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis, 62: 2–17.
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Classified as lung and skin irritantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Known human lung and skin toxicantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicityUS EPA Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Cancer - limited evidenceIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99.

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualificationsJACT 3(3):139-55, 1984 (Addendum) JEPT 4(4):47-61, 1980 (Original report) confirmed 09/03 IJT 25(S2), 2006

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productJACT 3(3):139-55, 1984 (Addendum) JEPT 4(4):47-61, 1980 (Original report) confirmed 09/03 IJT 25(S2), 2006
165 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Formaldehyde - Global Harmonized System (GHS)
  • EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
  • De Groot AC 2010. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis, 62: 2–17.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • US EPA Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99.
  • JACT 3(3):139-55, 1984 (Addendum) JEPT 4(4):47-61, 1980 (Original report) confirmed 09/03 IJT 25(S2), 2006
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

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