GROUP:

Women of childbearing age (19-45)


health & safety concerns:
chemicals found
on average indivi-
dual range
entire group
Brain and nervous system 31 1-196 215
Reproduction and fertility 23 1-67 76
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies) 28 1-175 191
Gastrointestinal (including liver) 12 1-55 61
Birth defects and developmental delays 5 2-15 19
Endocrine system 2 1-5 7
Cancer 2 2-3 3
Chronic effects, general 3 1-5 7

Group members:

(34 People)

Anonymous Adult 9
Anonymous Adult 13
Anonymous Adult 10
Monique Harden
Anonymous Adult 1
Kathy Fowler
Jenna Meyer
Katrina Alcorn
Tiffany Kimball
Teri Olle
Margaret Hardin
Susan Comfort
Angela Strother
Jill
Anonymous
Rani Corey-Sheaffer
Anonymous
Meredith Buhalis
Darcy White
Jennifer Scheinz
Laurie Yung
Lisa
Anonymous
Leila Feldman
Susanne Green
Erika Schreder
Participant #8
Kelsey Wirth
Margie Roswell
Stephanie Berger
Jessica Welborn
Alicia Wittink
Vivian Chang
Jennifer Hill-Kelley


Locations:

Atlanta, GA
Stanford, CA
San Francisco, CA
New Orleans, LA
Rockville, MD
Oakland, CA
La Habra Heights, CA
Evergreen, CO
Washington, DC
Gainesville, FL
Canton, GA
Dorchester, MA
Jamiaca Plain, MA
Ann Arbor, MI
Raytown, MO
Helena, MT
Missoula, MT
Portland, OR
Nashville, TN
Austin, TX
Burke, VA
Seattle, WA
Cambridge, MA
Baltimore, MD
Bethesda, MD
Green Bay, WI



picture of group

Group: Women of childbearing age (19-45)
Found 312-388 of 540 tested chemicals (34 participants)

The blood, urine, and breast milk of the "Women of childbearing age (19-45)" group contained 312-388 of 540 industrial compounds, pollutants and other chemicals tested, including chemicals linked to brain and nervous system toxicity, reproductive toxicity and fertility problems, and immune system toxicity.

Summary of chemicals found in Women of childbearing age (19-45)

chemical family level found in group health effects exposure routes
BADGE-4OH20% high
20% moderate
Endocrine system Food can linings, dental sealants
Bisphenol A29% high
14% low
Polycarbonate plastics, food can linings, dental sealants
Brominated dioxins & furans50% moderate
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies) Dietary sources, fatty meat, dairy and fish
Cadmium100% high
Contaminated food and drinking water, cigarette smoke, contaminated factory air
Chlorinated dioxins & furans33% high
67% moderate
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies), Birth defects and developmental delays Dietary sources, fatty meat, dairy and fish
Lead25% high
63% moderate
13% low
Lead-based paint in older homes, household dust, vinyl products, tap water
Mercury80% high
20% moderate
Brain and nervous system Seafood, flu shots/vaccines, dental fillings
Methylmercury50% high
43% moderate
Dietary sources, particularly seafood
Nitro- and polycylic- musks60% high
40% moderate
Endocrine system, Cancer Cosmetics, perfumes, cleaning agents, detergents, soaps
Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs)50% high
50% moderate
Reproduction and fertility Contaminated food and drinking water
Organophosphate Pesticide metabolites (OPs)100% high
Brain and nervous system Contaminated food and drinking water
Perchlorate20% moderate
80% low
Hematologic (blood) system, Birth defects and developmental delays Contaminated food and drinking water
Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)15% high
46% moderate
38% low
Birth defects and developmental delays, Cancer, Endocrine system Stain- and grease-proof coatings on food packaging, couches, carpets, pans
Phthalates50% high
17% moderate
17% low
Endocrine system Cosmetics, paint, soft plastic, food packaging, and other consumer products
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)50% moderate
50% low
Reproduction and fertility Air polluted by vehicles or factories, burned and fatty food
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)28% high
52% moderate
21% low
Reproduction and fertility, Brain and nervous system Foam furniture, carpet padding, computers, televisions, contaminated house dust, food
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)100% moderate
Brain and nervous system, Immune system (including sensitization and allergies) Dietary sources, fatty meat, dairy and fish
Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)50% high
50% moderate
Gastrointestinal (including liver) Dietary sources, fatty meat, dairy and fish
Triclosan100% found, not quantifiedEndocrine system, Skin Antibacterial soap, toothpaste, cosmetics, cleaning products, shoe insoles, plastic cutting boards, other antibacterial items
Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs)100% found, not quantified Contaminated indoor and outdoor air

Test results by chemical family (see each chemical)

bisphenol a & badge

2 of 2 found

Metabolite of BADGE, used to make metal food can linings. Linked to hormone activity, skin and immune system toxicity and cancer.

  • geometric mean: 3.11 ng/mL in blood serum (vs. 9.33 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 2 of 5 people in the group (vs. 30 of 41 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Anonymous Adult 9, Jessica Welborn
3.02ng/mL in blood serum174


Detected in polycarbonate plastic, dental sealants, and resins that line metal cans. Linked to hormone disruption, birth defects, cancer with effects at very low doses.

Bisphenol A were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 1 of the 5 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

  • geometric mean: 1.21 ng/mL in blood serum (vs. 0.456 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 1 of 5 people in the group (vs. 16 of 51 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Jessica Welborn
0.445ng/mL in blood serum8.61


brominated dioxins & furans

2 of 12 found — see each chemical

Contaminants in flame retardants, pollutants from plastics. May harm hormone system.

  • geometric mean: 2.82 pg/g lipids in blood serum (vs. 14.8 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 1 of 2 people in the group (vs. 2,163 of 4,821 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Anonymous Adult 1
7.72pg/g lipids in blood serum1440


Total Brominated dioxins & furans

chlorinated dioxins & furans

16 of 17 found — see each chemical

Pollutants from PVC production, industrial bleaching, and incineration. Cause cancer and may harm hormone system.

5pg/g lipids in blood serum1860


Total Chlorinated dioxins & furans

metals

4 of 6 found

In batteries, pigments, coatings, plastic and cigarette smoke. Cadmium causes cancer and is linked to birth defects and kidney damage.

  • geometric mean: 0.7 ppb in urine (vs. 0.339 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 3 of 9 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Monique Harden
0.5ppb in urine0.7


Neurotoxic heavy metal linked to IQ deficits and behavioral problems. Found in dust from chipping lead paint in older homes, and in some tap water.

0.222ug/dL in whole blood4.7


Mercury is used in dental fillings and to preserve vaccines; it is also a common pollutant in seafood. Mercury harms brain development and function.

7.0E-5ug/L in whole blood12


Forms from mercury, a pollutant from coal-fired power plants and other sources. Methylmercury accumulates in seafood and harms brain development and function.

0.0735ug/L in whole blood25.9


nitro- and polycylic- musks

4 of 10 found — see each chemical

Fragrance ingredients. Build up in human tissues. May harm hormone system.

0.0547ng/g in blood serum4.23


Total Nitro- and polycylic- musks

organochlorine pesticides (ocs)

24 of 30 found — see each chemical

Includes DDT, chlordane, other pesticides. Largely banned in the U.S. Build up in the human body over time. Cause cancer and reproductive harm.

Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 3 of the 3 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

0.615ng/g lipids in blood serum2830


Total Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs)

organophosphate pesticide metabolites (ops)

5 of 9 found — see each chemical

Breakdown products from pesticides, including Dursban, formerly used in homes and currently used on produce. Can damage brain development.

  • geometric mean: 52.9 ppb in urine (vs. 22.6 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 9 of 9 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Monique Harden
4ppb in urine70.4


Total Organophosphate Pesticide metabolites (OPs)

perchlorate

1 of 1 found

Explosive component of solid rocket and missile fuel. Widespread contaminant of food, drinking water, and people. Disrupts thyroid hormones, particularly in women with lower iodide intake; may harm brain development.

0.2ug/L in urine5.6


perfluorochemicals (pfcs)

11 of 14 found — see each chemical

Includes Teflon, Scotchgard, Stainmaster. Linked to cancer and birth defects.

Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 2 of the 2 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

  • geometric mean: 10.6 ng/g in whole blood (vs. 4.46 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 23 of 23 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Anonymous Adult 1, Kathy Fowler
0.736ng/g in whole blood27.8


Total Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)

phthalates

10 of 13 found — see each chemical

In cosmetics, paint, and plastics. Linked to sperm damage and birth defects of male reproductive system.

Phthalates were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 6 of the 6 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

  • geometric mean: results not quantified
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 9 of 9 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Monique Harden

found in 1 of 1 members of the group, but not quantified

 


Total Phthalates

102ug/g creatinine in urine10800


Total Phthalates

polyaromatic hydrocarbons (pahs)

8 of 18 found — see each chemical

Pollutants from burning gasoline and garbage. Linked to cancer. Accumulate in food chain.

  • geometric mean: 189 ng/g lipids in blood serum (vs. 230 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 8 of 8 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Kathy Fowler, Anonymous Adult 1
130ng/g lipids in blood serum384


Total Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes)

37-43 of 49 found — see each chemical

Fire retardants in furniture foam, computers, and televisions. Accumulate in human tissues. May harm brain development.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in different units for some of the members of this group. Overall it was found in 9 of the 9 members tested in the group. The bars below are grouped by units:

1.11ng/g lipids in blood serum314


Total Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs)

116-166 of 209 found — see each chemical

Banned industrial insulators and lubricants. Cause cancer and nervous system problems.

2.95ng/g lipids in blood serum600


Total Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns)

38-58 of 70 found — see each chemical

Wood preservatives, varnishes, machine lubricating oils, waste incineration. Cause liver and kidney damage.

  • geometric mean: 1.26 ng/g lipids in blood serum (vs. 0.693 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 23 of 23 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Kathy Fowler, Anonymous Adult 1
0.0743ng/g lipids in blood serum3.43


Total Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)

triclosan

1 of 1 found

Antibacterial agent (pesticide) in liquid hand soap, toothpaste, cosmetics, cleaning products, footwear, and plastic products labeled "antibacterial." Triclosan may disrupt thyroid hormones, and can form several chemicals with health and environmental concerns.

found in 3 of 3 members of the group, but not quantified

 


volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (vocs and svocs)

33 of 76 found — see each chemical

Used in wide range of household, craft, and industrial products. Common tap water and air pollutants. Includes neurotoxins and carcinogens.

  • geometric mean: results not quantified
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 9 of 9 in all EWG/Commonweal studies)
  • found in: Monique Harden

found in 1 of 1 members of the group, but not quantified

 


Total Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs)

References/Notes

[1] CDC (2005). National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/. (Methylmercury results have been compared to total mercury in CDC biomonitoring.)