Toddlers (age 1-4)

health & safety concerns:
chemicals found
on average indivi-
dual range
entire group
Reproduction and fertility 9 1-11 12
Brain and nervous system 9 1-11 12
Immune system (including sensitization and allergies) 4 4-4 5
Respiratory system 4 3-4 4
Chronic effects, general 2 2-2 2
Endocrine system 2 1-2 2
Gastrointestinal (including liver) 1 1-1 1
Birth defects and developmental delays 2 2-2 2

Group members:

(22 People)

Anonymous Child #17
Olivia Brune
Anonymous Child #13
Naomi Carrigg
Anonymous Child #11
Mckenzie Green
Hannelore Peters
Conner Adams
Brynn Dickman
Elijah Scheinz
Natalie Comerford
Ruby Alcorn
Anonymous Child #42
Zade Little
Eva West


Washington, DC
Oakland, CA
Lake Forest Park, WA
San Francisco, CA
Helena, MT
Colorado Springs, CO
Missoula, MT
Seattle, WA
Minneapolis, MN
Anchorage, AK
Boston, MA
Portland, OR
Alameda, CA
Riverside, CA
Taos, NM
Clinton, CT

picture of group

Group: Toddlers (age 1-4)
Found 22 of 42 tested chemicals (22 participants)

The blood and urine of the "Toddlers (age 1-4)" group contained 22 of 42 industrial compounds, pollutants and other chemicals tested, including chemicals linked to reproductive toxicity and fertility problems, brain and nervous system toxicity, and immune system toxicity.

Summary of chemicals found in Toddlers (age 1-4)

chemical family level found in group health effects exposure routes
Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)100% moderate
Birth defects and developmental delays, Cancer, Endocrine system Stain- and grease-proof coatings on food packaging, couches, carpets, pans
Phthalates100% moderate
Endocrine system Cosmetics, paint, soft plastic, food packaging, and other consumer products
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)20% high
80% moderate
Reproduction and fertility, Brain and nervous system Foam furniture, carpet padding, computers, televisions, contaminated house dust, food

Test results by chemical family (see each chemical)

perfluorochemicals (pfcs)

4 of 13 found — see each chemical

Includes Teflon, Scotchgard, Stainmaster. Linked to cancer and birth defects.

  • geometric mean: 21.7 ng/mL in blood serum (vs. 22.7 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 1 of 1 people in the group (vs. 3,684 of 3,959 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas
2.63ng/mL in blood serum77.7

Total Perfluorochemicals (PFCs)


7 of 7 found — see each chemical

In cosmetics, paint, and plastics. Linked to sperm damage and birth defects of male reproductive system.

  • geometric mean: 251 ug/g creatinine in urine (vs. 315 in CDC biomonitoring [1])
  • found in 2 of 2 people in the group (vs. 7,928 of 8,020 in CDC biomonitoring)
  • found in: Nicholas, May
102ug/g creatinine in urine10800

Total Phthalates

polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes)

11 of 20 found — see each chemical

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

Fire retardants in furniture foam, computers, and televisions. Accumulate in human tissues. May harm brain development.

1.11ng/g lipids in blood serum314

Total Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)


[1] CDC (2005). National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Centers for Disease Control. (Methylmercury results have been compared to total mercury in CDC biomonitoring.)